Shiur Shkolim 11a (2) – 3 Tammuz, 5784 – 7/9/24


Shkolim -11a (2)

Tammuz 3, 5784. 07/09/2024

Short notes:

1- The גמרא discusses the measuring of wine and flour in the בית המקדש. When filling up the measuring כלי how much would one pour into it.

The issue concerns the overflow – if it becomes קודש.



We discussed the 3 levels of “full” we come across in ש”ס.  Like in a “full cup of wine or flour”.

מלא מחוק גדוש

מלא- is a general term for ‘full’.

מחוק- means full but not overflowing. (literally – to pass a stick over the top of say, a full cup of flour, removing any overflow. This was actually  done with קמיצה. After filling ones four fingers, the כהן would pass his thumb over his fingers to remove any excess. See מנחות 1, 2 ).

גדוש – means ‘overflowing’.

How to measure 100 grams of flour without scales - Quora

2- When making קידוש and הבדלה it says that the cup needs to be מלא.

או”ח קפג.

However, the מנהג ישראל is to pour a bit more for it to overflow. גדוש.

What to Expect at a Havdalah Ceremony -

In Chabad, (I may be incorrect) until 1982 we would only do גדוש by הבדלה as it is a סימן ברכה.

Alter Rebbe או”ח רצו, ה

At a Farbrengen   תשמ”ב פרשת שלח the Rebbe mentioned in passing that ‘we do it at קידוש and הבדלה’.

תורת מנחם תשמ”ב עמוד 1692

REVIEWS: Trying To Grasp The Rebbe Chabad Lubavitch World, 52% OFF

3 – The next Mishna discusses how the left over קטורת was dealt with since every ראש חודש ניסן, a new fresh batch acquired using funds from the new מחצית השקל was required. We will continue next shiur bl”n.

4 – Speaking of קטורת we quipped about a רמז in the קטורת about the date of 9/11. [For those that didn’t attend the shiur….come next week for the answer]

5 –  Gimmel Tamuz.

We mentioned a few interesting ideas from the Rebbe, each one emphasizing the Rebbe’s view on various topics.

A – The  דיוק – exactness of any and all details of תורה.


The Rebbe once spoke about a particular משנה that has 2 topics that seem not to be related and asked as to why they were not split into 2 משניות.

‘The division of the משניות is intentional and has Halachik ramifications.

We find that if one says הרי את מקודשת לי if I can read חומש, then he needs to know a minimum of 3 פסוקים.

If one says הרי את מקודשת לי if I know משניות, he needs to know a minimum of 3 משניות.

Now, in one particular מסכת, we find 1 Mishna, that interestingly is marked as 2 משנהs!!

כלאים ז- משנה ד-ה.


Concludes the Rebbe, one can say that if one knows this one משנה it is considered that he knows 2 משנהs!

ליקוטי שיחות 11 page 64.



B – A דיוק in אהבת ישראל.

In a letter dated לג בעומר תשמ”א the Rebbe quotes a saying from רבי שמעון בר יוחאי, that ‘I can absolve the whole world entirely from their sins’.  סוכה מה, ב

יכול אני לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין מיום שנבראתי עד עתה

The exact words seem like a duplication: כל העולם כולו. The whole world entirely.

Blue marble - NASA Science

The Rebbe points to a ט”ז in הלכות ראש השנה that states in the name of the לבוש that generally even when the word כל is used, (like: always, all, or never) it does not imply 100%, but majority – רוב.

  ט”ז או”ח תקפ”ב.

However, on ראש השנה, a time of expressing the מלכות of הקב”ה, we need to repeat מלוך על כל העולם כולו.

  • Interestingly, the Alter Rebbe agrees to the ט”ז in his Shulchan Aruch, 591, 8 but in his מחזור he wrote:

The Rebbe’s citation of the ט”ז is to note that when רשב”י said, ‘I can absolve the whole world entirely from their sins’, by using the double ‘all’ he really meant all. Rashbi’s is saying that his זכות can absolve absolving the entire world – 100% with no exception.

[We humbly suggested that this double expression is also encountered in the גמרא and in תניא, explicitly in regards to אהבת ישראל


Hello! This is Hebrew, right? What does this bench say? Thank you! : r/hebrew

In : גמרא

שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי, אמר לו: גיירני על מנת שתלמדני כל התורה כולה כשאני עומד על רגל אחת. דחפו [שמאי] באמת הבנין שבידו. בא לפני הלל, גייריה [גייר אותו], אמר לו: דעלך סני לחברך לא תעביד [מה ששנאוי עליך אל תעשה לחברך] – זו היא כל התורה כולה, ואידך פירושה היא, זיל גמור.

In תניא 32.

וז”ש הלל הזקן על קיום מצוה זו זהו כל התורה כולה ואידך פירושא הוא כו’.

Meaning the אהבת ישראל is for all – not only most – but to 100%.]


C- The idea behind paying a חומש.

ליקוטי שיחות ז, ע’ 13

Shiur Shkolim 11a – 26 Sivan, 5784 – 7/2/24


Shkolim -11a

Sivan 26, 5784. 07/02/2024

1- Last week, we encountered a גמרא expressing very unkind words about the conduct of a few of the  כהנים גדולים.

The גמרא said that every כהן גדול that made a new פרה אדומה would destroy the ramp (going up to  הר המשחה ) built by his predecessor and build a fancier one.

The גמרא mocked at this waste of money and called it, שחצנות ‘vain pomposity’!

The  גמרא of this week reverses itself. ‘How can you say that building a new ramp is ‘pomposity’ when the righteous שמעון הצדיק who did two פרה אדומות, demolished the first ramp to build a fancier one’?

One must say, concludes the גמרא, that this act of destroying the old and rebuilding a new one was in honor of the מצווה of פרה אדומה. It was not done to flaunt or to out-do a previous כהן גדול.

The Enigmatic Rites of the Red Heifer -

It seems that the גמרא is saying that there is an איסור  to reuse the existing ramp. Meaning that there was no pomposity ever.


See Shiur on Sukkah 21a-b, Sivan 14, 5781, 05/25/2021

Wilson's Arch - Madain Project (en)

2- We mentioned briefly the משנה in   מסכת פרה,  Parah 3, 5. about the history of the 9 פרה אדומות.

וּמִי עֲשָׂאָם. הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עָשָׂה משֶׁה, וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה עָשָׂה עֶזְרָא, וְחָמֵשׁ, מֵעֶזְרָא וָאֵילָךְ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, שֶׁבַע מֵעֶזְרָא וָאֵילָךְ. וּמִי עֲשָׂאָן. שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק וְיוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל עָשׂוּ שְׁתַּיִם שְׁתַּיִם, אֶלְיְהוֹעֵינַי בֶּן הַקּוֹף וַחֲנַמְאֵל הַמִּצְרִי וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן פִּיאָבִי עָשׂוּ אַחַת אֶחָת.

And who made these פרה אדומה? The first Moshe Rabeinu made, the second Ezra made, and five from Ezra and onward, according to Rabbi Meir.

Are The Red Heifers a Sign of the End Times?

And the Sages say: Seven [were made] from Ezra and onward [for a total of nine]; and who made them? Shimon the righteous and Yochanan the high priest made two each, Elyehoeinai ben Hakof and Chanamel the Egyptian and Yishmael ben Pi’avi each made one.

Parah 3, 5.

3 – We spoke about the words added by the Rambam (3, 4) when he describes the history of the 9 פרה אדומות he concludes: .And the tenth will be brought by the king Mashiach; may he speedily be revealed. Amen, so may it be God’s will.


The Rebbe’s Sicha on this. LS 28, 131. LS 33, 127.


תשע פרות אדומות נעשו משנצטוו במצוה זו עד שחרב הבית בשניה, ראשונה עשה משה רבינו, ושניה עשה עזרא, ושבע מעזרא עד חורבן הבית, והעשירית עושה המלך המשיח, מהרה ייגלה:

Nine red heifers were offered from the time that they were commanded to fulfill this mitzvah until the time when the Temple was destroyed a second time. The first was brought by Moses Rabeinu. The second was brought by Ezra. Seven others were offered until the destruction of the Second Temple. And the tenth will be brought by the king Mashiach; may he speedily be revealed. Amen, so may it be God’s will.

Gold Character Collection 10th Anniversary Stock Photo, Picture and Royalty Free Image. Image 16787203.

4 – On the next עמוד we will encounter a phrase:

רִבִּי אוֹמֵר. אוֹמֵר אֲנִי.

Rebi says: I say……

We spoke at length about the fascinating insight of Reb Yosef Engel (and here) about this phrase since we find that it was only used by רבי יהודה , the author/ compiler of the משנה.

Two Books By Rabbi Yosef Engel First Editions

While is seems not a humble thing to say “I say”, in reality it showed the humbleness of רבי. Reb Yosef Engel explains that with the אני he meant the שכינה and was emphasizing that his entirety being, his knowledge etc, was from above.

In his lengthy piece, he has a unique explanation of this פסוק.

תהילים מה ב

(ב) רָ֘חַ֤שׁ לִבִּ֨י דָּ֘בָ֤ר ט֗וֹב אֹמֵ֣ר אָ֭נִי מַעֲשַׂ֣י

לְמֶ֑לֶךְ לְ֝שׁוֹנִ֗י עֵ֤ט סוֹפֵ֬ר מָהִֽיר׃

My heart stirs with a good thing. I recite my composition to a king. My tongue is the pen of a ready writer.

Briefly, it is דוד המלך praying for his descendant, רבי, who will need to decide if to write the משניות on paper.

דוד המלך is saying:

אֹמֵ֣ר אָ֭נִי   – my grandson who is fond of saying אֹמֵ֣ר אָ֭נִי

despite the prohibition to write תורה שבעל פה, the intention of רבי will be מעשי למלך .  Meaning, לשם שמים.

And therefore- despite the משניות being לְ֝שׁוֹנִ֗י, allowed only to be recited verbally, nevertheless the time necessitates it to jot it down in writing. עֵ֤ט סוֹפֵ֬ר מָהִֽיר׃

The Shepherd Who Became King -

בית האוצר א, לג. רבי אומר אומר אני… לשוני עט סופר מהיר



Shiur Shkolim 10b (2) – 19 Sivan, 5784 – 6/25/24


Shkolim -10b (2)

Sivan 19, 5784. 06/25/2024

1- Continued on other items that were paid or acquired with the מחצית השקל fund.

A- שני דייני גזילות.

Two judges that ruled on cases involving גזל. Their salary came from the מחצית השקל.

Beth Hamedrash & Beth Din”, (House of Learning & Judgement) – A Jewish Court, from The Graphic, August 11th, 1906 – Jewish Miscellanies

A Dayan carefully considering the evidence

We discussed if their rulings were directly related to קרבנות or not.

Spoke about the general concept of לב בית דין מתנה עליהם – meaning that בית דין would stipulate that some of the money coming into the לשכה would be used for items not directly associated with קרבנות.

B- The פרוכות of the בית המקדש. Discussion if the פרוכת is considered a קרבן (since there was  הזית הדם on them) or they are part of the בנין המקדש.

C- הַקְּטוֹרֶת וְכָל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּיבּוּר בָּאִין מִתְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה. מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב וְכָל כְּלֵי שָׁרֵת בָּאִין מִמּוֹתָרֵי נְסָכִים. מִזְבַּח הָעוֹלָה וְהַהֵיכָל וְהָעֲזָרוֹת בְּאִין מִשְּׁיֵּרֵי הַלִּשְׁכָּה.

2- The גמרא discusses what כלים of the בית המקדש  were essential to be present to allow the הקרבת הקרבן.

המנורה אֲרוֹן הַב ְּרִ ית ) לפי שיטת הרמב;quot&ם מראה המנורה (

כיור וכנו

Say the מנורה was missing. Can one be מקריב  the קטורת?

This leads into the wide topic of מקריבין אף על פי שאין בית, which was one of the 3 נבואות  said when they came back from בבל.

We discussed that this נבואה triggered the many discussions about building just a מזבח where the original one stood and being מקריב קרבנות.

Reb Yechiel of Paris. Here.

R’ Yechiel M’Brunoy

Mentioned some of the issues with bringing קרבנות prior to the building of the בית המקדש.

The directive of the Rebbe after the 6 day war.

See here ; R’ Ishtori (Ashtori) Haparchi and Kaftor V’ferach, regarding R’ Yechiel’s plans to bring a Korban.

Reb Yechiel is also known for his ויכוחים with Christians (and a משומד), which led to the burning of the Shas r”l in Paris, in 1242.

See interesting article here. Here.

3 – On Daf 11a the גמרא says that every כהן גדול that made a new פרה אדומה would destroy the ramp (going up to  הר המשחה ) built by his predecessor and build a fancier one.

If every stone of the temple was thrown down how is the Wailing Wall still standing? - Quora

The גמרא mocks at this waste of money and calls it ‘vain pomposity’! שחצנות

Rich man telugu

In relation to this we mentioned an interesting story about a town that received a donation to build a בית ועד for the קהילה. The donor made the Rabbi and the ועד הקהל sign a document promising that this building he is donating shall never be sold or switched for another building.

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Decades later, the building became old and was too small for the קהילה’s use. The קהילה turned to the חתם סופר if there is a way out of this promise.

חתס יוד ב, רכ.

After going back and forth about the guarantee to the donor, whether it is a נדר or a שבועה and whether it is מחייב the current residences of the קהילה, the חתם סופר finds a way, with certain conditions, for them to sell the old one and purchase another building.

Shalom Austin campus home to new Dell Jewish Community Center

In passing he writes that one needs to understand what the original donor wanted to prevent from happening and inserted his concern in the binding document.

‘It is the custom of some people of a ועד הקהל to destroy the old and build anew for them to have their name affixed to the new one. As we find in Yerushalmi שקלים concerning the ramp for the פרה אדומה where a כהן גדול would destroy a perfectly usable ramp and spend a fortune on a new one just a place his name on ‘his’.


4 – We reviewed some points of last week and added another interesting note on the cryptic אבן עזרא.

 If you are able to understand the secret that follows Azazel then you will know its secret and the secret of its name, for it has ‘companions’ in Scripture. I will reveal a bit of its secret to you in a hint. When you are thirty-three, you will understand it.

 As per the Ramban, the idea behind the עזאזל is to give a bribe to the שר של עשיו.

Some say that what the אבן עזרא meant with ‘ for it has ‘companions’ in Scripture’  he meant that the letters of עזאזל have ‘companion’ – adjacent letters in the אלף בית.

ע         ס

ז         ו

א        ת

ז         ו

ל         כ

סוכות equals עזאזל

The אבן עזרא was alluding to two פסוקים in פרשת וישלח,

33, 14.

This is where יעקב , after meeting עשיו , tells עשיו not to wait for him but to go ahead and ‘I’ll catch up to you until I will arrive to your home base in שעיר.

Jacob and Esau Reunited - GoodSalt

יַעֲבׇר⁠־נָ֥א אֲדֹנִ֖י לִפְנֵ֣י עַבְדּ֑וֹ וַאֲנִ֞י אֶֽתְנָהֲלָ֣ה לְאִטִּ֗י לְרֶ֨גֶל הַמְּלָאכָ֤ה אֲשֶׁר⁠־לְפָנַי֙ וּלְרֶ֣גֶל הַיְלָדִ֔ים עַ֛ד אֲשֶׁר⁠־אָבֹ֥א אֶל⁠־אֲדֹנִ֖י שֵׂעִֽירָה׃

Please, let my master pass before his servant, and let me lead on at my leisure,⁠ at the pace of the livestock which are before me and at the pace of the children, until I come to my master, to Se’ir.

A few verses later we find that יעקב  set up his tent in סוכות.

וְיַעֲקֹב֙ נָסַ֣ע סֻכֹּ֔תָה וַיִּ֥בֶן ל֖וֹ בָּ֑יִת וּלְמִקְנֵ֙הוּ֙ עָשָׂ֣ה סֻכֹּ֔ת עַל⁠־כֵּ֛ן קָרָ֥א שֵׁם⁠־הַמָּק֖וֹם סֻכּֽוֹת׃

Yaakov traveled to Sukkot, and he built a house and made huts for his livestock. Therefore he named the place Sukkot.⁠

And these פסוקים are in chapter 33 in חומש בראשית!

So the אבן עזרא was hinting that by performing the מצוה of the שעיר לעזאזל  one merits to fulfill the מצווה of סוכה.

(However, see last week’s shiur where we mentioned that the division of the חומש   into פרקים was not yet created in the time of the אבן עזרא).



Shiur Shkolim 10b – 12 Sivan, 5784 – 6/18/24


Shkolim -10b

Sivan 12, 5784. 06/18/2024

Two short notes.

1- The משנה itemized what needs to be purchased with the מחצית השקל.

משנה: פָּרָה וְשָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ וְלָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית בָּאִין מִתְּרוּמַת הַלִשְׁכָּה.

We discussed at length the complicated idea behind the שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ and the various explanation offered to understand this perplexing חוקה.

Mentioned the various attempts to decipher the famous cryptic אבן עזרא about  the שעיר לעזאזל.

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“ואם יכולת להבין הסוד שהוא אחר מילת ‘עזאזל’ תדע סודו וסוד שמו כי יש לו חברים במקרא, ואני אגלה לך קצת הסוד ברמז: בהיותך בן  שלשים ושלש תדענו”

I will reveal a bit of its secret to you in a hint. When you are thirty-three, you will understand it.”

 What did the אבו עזרא mean with that? Is the number 33 a code to understand the שעיר לעזאזל? What was he hinting at?

Mathematician Cracks The 33 Problem HowStuffWorks, 54% OFF

We find ראשונים and אחרונים that put forth ideas decoding this אבן עזרא.

The classic explanation is from the רמב”ן that the אבן עזרא alluded for us to see ahead 33 פסוקים where we find the prohibition against sacrificing to demons. The תורה meant that this שעיר לעזאזל is not ח”ו in that category.


ואני אגלה לך קצת הסוד ברמז בהיותך בן שלשים ושלש (אחרי ל”ג פסוקים יז ז) תדענו והנה ר”א נאמן רוח מכסה דבר ואני הרכיל מגלה סודו שכבר גלו אותו רבותינו ז”ל במקומות רבים אמרו בבראשית רבה (סה י) ונשא השעיר עליו (להלן פסוק כב) זה עשו שנאמר (בראשית כז יא) הן עשו אחי איש שעיר את כל עונותם עונות תם שנאמר ויעקב איש תם (שם כה כז) ומפורש מזה בפרקי רבי אליעזר הגדול (פרק מו) לפיכך היו נותנין לו לסמאל שוחד ביום הכפורים שלא לבטל את קרבנם שנאמר גורל אחד לה’ וגורל אחד לעזאזל גורלו של הקב”ה לקרבן עולה …וגורלו של עזאזל שעיר החטאת וכל עונותיהם של ישראל עליו

[In passing we mentioned attempts by some modern ‘thinkers’ that are ridiculous. Such as the idea the אבן עזרא alluded to the 33rd chapter in דברים. The problem is that the division of the תורה into chapters  (פרקים) in the 13th century ,was created way after the אבן עזרא passed away in 1167!]

Here are some of the texts pertaining to the above.

ויקרא טז, ח וְלָקַ֖ח אֶת⁠־שְׁנֵ֣י הַשְּׂעִירִ֑ם וְהֶעֱמִ֤יד אֹתָם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד׃

ספרות עם ישראל - ספרות עברית וספרויות בלשונות היהודים, אוניברסיטת בר-אילן - מודי כהן הלומד במחלקה, מקדיש פוסט לשיר של Shuri Hazan הלומד אף הוא במחלקה: לכבוד פרשות אחרי מות וקדושים אני

He shall take the two goats and set them before Hashem at the door of the Tent of Meeting.

אבן עזרא: ויאמר רב שמואל: אע״פ שכתוב בשעיר החטאת שהוא לשם, גם השעיר המשתלח הוא לשם. ואין צריך, כי המשתלח איננו קרבן, כי לא ישחט. ואם יכולת להבין הסוד שהוא אחר מלת עזאזל, תדע סודו וסוד שמו, כי יש לו חברים במקרא. ואני אגלה

לך קצת הסוד ברמז בהיותך בן שלשים ושלש שנים תדענו.

Rabbi Samuel says that even though it is written that the goat offered as a sin offering is to be offered to God, the goat that was sent was also offered to God. There is no need for this interpretation, for the goat sent into the wilderness did not serve as an offering since it was not slaughtered. If you are able to understand the secret that follows Azazel then you will know its secret and the secret of its name, for it has ‘companions’ in Scripture. I will reveal a bit of its secret to you in a hint. When you are thirty-three, you will understand it.



והנה ר׳ אברהם נאמן רוח מכסה דבר,⁠ אבל אני הרכיל מגלה סודו, שכבר גלו אותו רבותינו במקומות רבים……

Now of Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra it may be said that he that is of a faithful spirit concealeth a matter, and I will [not] be the talebearer who revealeth his secret, since our Rabbis of blessed memory have already revealed it in many places

ומפורש מזה בפרקי רבי אליעזר הגדול (פרקי דרבי אליעזר מ״ו): לפיכך היו נותנין לו לסמאל שחד ביום הכיפורים שלו יקריבו את קרבנם, שנאמר: גורל אחד לי״י וגורל אחד לעזאזל, גורלו של הקב״ה לקרבן עולה וגורלו של עזאזל שעיר החטאת, וכל עונותיהם של ישראל עליו, שנאמר: ונשא השעיר עליו וכו׳….

It is explained more clearly in the Chapters of the great Rabbi Eliezer: “The reason why they would give Sammael [i.e., Satan] a conciliatory gift on the Day of Atonement, was so that he should not annul [the effect of] their offerings, as it is said, one lot for the Eternal, and the other lot for Azazel, the lot of the Holy One, blessed by He, to be a burnt-offering, and the lot of Azazel to be ‘the goat of sin,’ bearing upon it all the iniquities of Israel, as it is said, And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities.

הנה רמז לך ר׳ אברהם שתדע סודו כשתגיע לפסוק: ולא יזבחו עוד את זבחיהם לשעירים (ויקרא י״ז:ז׳). והמלה מורכבת, וחביריה רבים.

Thus Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra intimated to you that you will know the secret of [sending away the goat to Azazel] when you reach the verse, And they shall no more sacrifice their sacrifices unto the satyrs.

[Plus 35 פסוקים]

ויקרא יז, ז  וְלֹא⁠־יִזְבְּח֥וּ עוֹד֙ אֶת⁠־זִבְחֵיהֶ֔ם לַשְּׂעִירִ֕ם אֲשֶׁ֛ר הֵ֥ם זֹנִ֖ים אַחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֛ם תִּֽהְיֶה⁠־זֹּ֥את לָהֶ֖ם לְדֹרֹתָֽם׃

They shall no longer sacrifice their sacrifices to the goat-demons after whom they stray. This shall be a statute forever to them throughout their generations.’

More on this next Shiur IY”H.

2 – The גמרא adds that another עבודה  paid with the מחצית השקל was the payroll for the people that taught the כהנים the הלכות שחיטה.

Laws of Shechita | Yeshiva Pirchei Shoshanim

We discussed the גמרא גיטין נז, ב  on the פסוק  in Tehilim כי עליך הורגנו כל היום.  Meaning that we, בני ישראל, give our lives away to הקב”ה.

One explanation of the גמרא is applies ‘when we learn הלכות שחיטה’ .

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: This verse was stated in reference to Torah scholars who demonstrate the halakhot of slaughter on themselves, meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is as Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himself to illustrate the act except for slaughter……..

As Rashi explains, when studying  שחיטה  , it may happen that the one holding the חלף to illustrate on how and where to שחט, may inadvertently poke himself with the knife.

Firsthand Lessons in Kashrut - Atlanta Jewish Times

The מהרש”א  says that just by studying these הלכות, and showing on yourself where to שחט,  causes ‘bad luck’ to come upon him! This is similar to the concept of אל תפתח פה לשטן.

And nevertheless we, בני ישראל, have מסירת נפש and do indeed study such הלכות!

This is perhaps the source of the  מנהג ישראל  when describing an illness of another, not to point on yourself the location of the illness.

4 – We mentioned הרב זויברמן ע”ה, the popular מגיד שיעור in Boro Park when he began מסכת יבמות  he prefaced:

רבותי  as the name implies, when studying יבמות, we will be dealing in this entire מסכת with a tragedy – a poor fellow who passed away without children.

We will constantly be saying: For example – ראובן passes away and leaves no children and now יבום kicks in and……

Mentioning that ראבן passes away, the מנהג is to add:

לא עלינו

השם ירחם

רחמנא ליצלן

חס ושלום

נישט אויף אונז געזאגט


However, concluded הרב זויברמן , I will say it now once for the entire מסכת !

We are dealing with a person that passed away , לא עלינו  ,  השם ירחם  , רחמנא ליצלן

חס ושלום,  נישט אויף אונז געזאגט……..

5 – The חתם סופר prior to learning מסכת יבמות and  חולין would fast to counter the bad מזל that mey be aroused ( חס ושלום לא עלינו…) with הלכות שחיטה and יבום.

ספר הזכרון עו. .

ומסיימין בטוב – יגדיל תורה ויאדיר



Shiur Shkolim 10a.(3) -10b 27 Iyar, 5784 – 6/5/24


Shkolim 10a.(3) -10b

Iyor 27, 5784. 06/05/2024

Short notes.

1- We continued on the topic of the opinion of Ren Yishmoel that the  עומר needed to come exclusively from ארץ ישראל. That would exclude סוריא as well.

The issue with סוריא; although it was captured by דוד המלך, it was not considered part of ארץ ישראל.

The Extent of David's Kingdom

In general, the area of a king’s conquest, (as opposed to a כיבוש יחיד) to add to the boundaries of  ארץ ישראל ,  is by default designated as ארץ ישראל proper. A מלך’s expansion is considered a כיבוש רבים and the result is a greater Israel.

We mentioned in the last shiur the different reasons given as to why סוריא didn’t achieve the status of proper ארץ ישראל.

A- סוריא was not considered a כיבוש רבים since the intention of דוד המלך was to capture this land mass for his own use. Rashi Brochos 36a, towards the bottom.

B – Elsewhere Rashi writes (Kidushin 39a, and also the Rambam מלכים ה:ו , ) that a כיבוש רבים with a מלך is only valid after all of ארץ ישראל that was given to בני ישראל is captured. A מלך needs first to gain control over all the land mass as per the boundaries delineated in פרשת מסעי.

2- The גמרא concludes with the roundabout way the גזבר would pay the שומרי ספיחים on Shmita.

Back of a security guard — Stock Photo © lsantilli #25360195

The first issue is that הקדש can be transferred only in exchange for a tangible item. Such as הקדש purchasing flour. When the flour is purchased the קדושה that is on the money is transferred to the flour and the money becomes חולין. With services, the money  needs to be transferred for labor, which is not tangible.

The second issue is that the wages for these שומרים was much more than the value of the עומר.  The גמרא suggests a way that solves both issues above.

We discussed the גמרא that says – economics 1.01- the value of an item is what ever a buyer needs and is willing to pay for it!

Zimbabwe: Bread Becomes A Luxury For Many After Prices, 44%, 43% OFF

3 – The next משנה continues itemizing what needs to be purchased with the מחצית השקל.

משנה: פָּרָה וְשָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ וְלָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית בָּאִין מִתְּרוּמַת הַלִשְׁכָּה.

MISHNAH: The Red Heifer Cow, the Yom Kippur goat which is sent away, and the red wool strip come from the money disbursed from the Lishka

Eight Connections between the Red Heifer and Redemption | Read | Messiah Online | FFOZ

Syrah - Herlig DK - Ancient Arts YarnsIs Azazel a Goat, Place, Demon, or Deity? -

4- Further on the גמרא  adds:

רִבִּי אָחָא רִבִּי תַנְחוּם בַּר חִייָה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי שִׂמְלַאי. מַגִּיהֵי סֵפֶר הֶעֲזָרָה נוֹטְלִין שְׂכָרָן מִתְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה.

Rebbi Acḥa, Rebbi Tanḥum bar Ḥiyya in the name of Rebbi Simlai: Those who correct the scroll of the Temple courtyard take their wages from the disbursement from the Lishka.


What is the ספר העזרה?

We referred back to a Covid era Shiur about the ספר העזרה.


See here for the (very cryptic) notes of that shiur.

We mentioned it yesterday because of the date, 28 of Iyor.

Here is the relevant part:

F- What happened to Ezra’s ספר תורה?

Torah - Wikiwand

Fascinating story of Reb Ovadia Bartenura. See below from the Chida’s שם הגדולים.

He relates that when he was in Egypt he heard that the ספר תורה of Ezra that was in a particular shul was removed by the Shamash who was bribed by an Arab. The Arab took it with him on a boat. Unfortunately, the boat sank…..

ship on sea during thunderstorm animated wallpaper fantasy art ...

On the other hand, the Chida continues, there is a different story printed in a footnote of a Chumash printed in Amsterdam. The story goes that the Rambam heard that this Chumash, written by Ezra himself, was at that time in Burgundy, France. He traveled there and copied it. The day he returned from Burgundy was the 28th of אייר, and he celebrated it every year.

So it seems that Ezra’s Torah survived until the time of the Rambam!

The Best Things to Do in Burgundy, France

However, the source of this story is from a book that was written by a very controversial individual.  רבי עזריה בן משה מן האדומים (דה לה רוסהבאיטלקית: Bonaiuto dei Rossi






Shiur Shkolim 10a (2) 20 Iyar, 5787 – 5/28/24


Shkolim 10a (2)

Iyor 20, 5784 –  05/28/2024

Brief notes.

1- We continued with the story of the 9 families that donated fire wood for the מזבח.

Generally, firewood for the מזבח is considered a קרבן ציבור. Thus it would need to be purchased with the מחצית השקל.

The issue is if firewood from an individual (other than thru the מחצית השקל) can be accepted to use as a קרבן ציבור.

A Day In The Holy Temple - Part 3 - Temple Institute


Now, there is no question that accepting a private donation and this donation will remain ‘private’ it cannot be used. A private gift is an oxymoron with the definition of קרבן ציבור.

The only way it can conceivably be used for a קרבן ציבור is if the private donor gifts it totally to the ציבור.

As mentioned last week – the חכמים say we cannot accept an individual’s gift, since they doubt the gift is transferred 100% to the ציבור.

רבי יוסי says that an individual can indeed donate something 100% to the ציבור.

2- So the story mentioned in תנ”ך where firewood was indeed accepted form the families seems to be according to the opinion of רבי יוסי.

The חכמים who say this type of private donation is not acceptable, cannot argue on the story in the תנ”ך. They say that it was a בדיעבד situation due to the lack of wood at the time.

In normal times, however, such donations are not acceptable.

3- In our משנה we had the same argument about the wheat for the מנחות if it came from an individual.

385 Man Sheaf Wheat Images, Stock Photos, 3D objects, & Vectors | Shutterstock

Here too, the חכמים say we cannot accept an individual’s gift, whereas רבי יוסי says that an individual can indeed donate something 100% to the ציבור.

The גמרא continues and makes a distinction between a private donation to be used  as an actual קרבן, like wheat for a מנחה and firewood that is used to create a fire on the מזבח.

קרבן vs מכשירי קרבן.

4 – The גמרא presents another story to prove the above distinction.

One of the families that donated wood was סְנָאָה בֶן בִּנְיָמִן. Their day to bring the wood was on the 10th of Av. יו”ד אב. This family would celebrate that day even after the בית המקדש was destroyed.

Occasionally, י אב would fall out on a Sunday, meaning that ט’ באב fell on Shabbos and the fast would be נדחה to י’ אב.

The Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The “Whole” Burnt Offering – Blogs

So how would the family of  סְנָאָה בֶן בִּנְיָמִן celebrate on a fast day?

Surprisingly- they didn’t!

אָמַר רִבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֵּירִבִּי צָדוֹק. אָנוּ הָיִינוּ מִבְּנֵי סְנָאָה בֶן בִּנְיָמִן וְחָל תִּשְׁעָה בְאָב לִהְיוֹת בַּשַּׁבָּת וְדָחִנוּ אוֹתוֹ לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְהָיִינוּ מִתְעַנִּין וְלֻא מַשְׁלִימִין.

“Rebbi Eleazar ben Rebbi Tzadok said, we were of the descendants of Senaah ben Benjamin. When the Ninth of Av fell on a Sabbath, we postponed it to Sunday and we began the fast but did not complete it⁠”.

5 – We touched briefly on the following topics related to this story:

A-  ט’ באב during the second בית המקדש- did they fast or not?

B- Story of רבי when ט’ באב fell on Shabbos he wanted to proclaim not to fast. ‘Since it was pushed over to Sunday, let’s push it off completely’.

Tisha B'Av -

The question: If ט’ באב fell on Shabbos, so did יז בתמוז. [Probably, but not necessarily]. So why did רבי attempt to do so only for תשעה באב?

Answer of Reb Pinchos Hirschsprung: רבי’s issue was the מלוה מלכה that would be omitted with ט באב since the fast starts the night before!

The Holocaust Survivor Memoirs Program | The Vale of Tears

Reb Pinchos Hirschsprung

C-  רִבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֵּירִבִּי צָדוֹק was actually a כהן. So how is he from the family of סְנָאָה בֶן בִּנְיָמִן, the family that brought the wood on the 10th of Av?

Tosfos  עירובין מא, א   answers that his mother was from בנימין.

ואע”ג דר’ אלעזר בן צדוק כהן היה כדמוכח בפרק כל פסולי המוקדשין (בכורות דף לו.) גבי רבי אלעזר בר צדוק הוה ליה בוכרא וכו’ שמא אמו היתה מבנימין או חתנם היה והיה עמהם בסייעתם:

That would mean that his mother practiced the מנהגים of her family despite being married to someone who didn’t have this מנהג. And her son followed his mother’s מנהגים – also לקולא – not fasting all day on ט באב!

Study: It's getting harder for Israeli immigrants to prove they're Jewish

Reb Moshe (OC 158) discusses this topic of ‘mixed’ marriages.

D – We see that ט באב can be pushed off if it is  נדחה to Sunday due to a celebration.

Indeed, we find in Shulchan Aruch (OC 509’ 9) that the בעלי הברית are permitted to eat on  ט באב that has been pushed Sunday.

(ט) ט׳ בְּאָב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת וְנִדְחָה לְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן, בַּעַל בְּרִית מִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל, וְרוֹחֵץ, וְאֵינוֹ מַשְׁלִים תַּעֲנִיתוֹ לְפִי שֶׁיּוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלּוֹ הוּא.

6 – We moved on to the topic of the עומר ושתי הלחם if they needed to come from ארץ ישראל.

7- In relation to ארץ ישראל and the בית המקדש, we mentioned an interesting point from the Rebbe – see this Shiur.

Geography and topography ב’ ענינים שונים.

A New Temple In Jerusalem Is Coming! - Free Grace International

.לקוש ראה חכט שיחה א

  • במשכן הכל היה שטוח. מחנה ישראל עד לקה”ק. קרקע לא נתקדש.
  • במקדש היו עליות. כל עלי’ במקום היא עלי’ בקדושה. ושיטת הרמב”ם שזה מעכב.
  • אבל לא בין ההיכל לקודש הקדשים. כי שם הקדושה היא באין ערוך, וא”א לבטא אפילו ברמז, גובה גשמי, שמדוד ומוגבל.

8- Spoke about the status of Syria and why, despite being conquered by דוד המלך, it was not granted the same level of קדושה like ארץ ישראל proper.  Rashi and Rambam.

Malchus Yisroel under David Hamelech

9 – Concluded with the question of Reb Zeira מנחות סט, ב  if wheat came down from heaven, can it be use for the שתי הלחם? Rashi and Tosfos.

Fish Rain: Can Fish Fall from the Sky? Truth and Scientific Explanation

Fish from Heaven

Can some thing that was created by a miracle be used in the בית המקדש? Do all standard הלכות apply to it?

CSI: Crime Scene Investigation" Scuba Doobie-Doo (TV Episode 2001) - IMDb

Diver in a tree

The חרובין tree that grew miraculously at the מערה where רשב”י and his son for 13 years. Did they need to wait 3-4 year for ערלה? Or perhaps since it was created by a נס, then it’s not really a ‘tree’.

Carob - Wikipedia

Ditto for the שמן at the נס חנוכה.

To be continued BL”N.

Shiur Shkolim 10a 13 Iyar, 5784 – 5/21/24


Shkolim 10a.

Iyor 13, 5784. 05/21/2024

We prefaced a few facts prior to learning the next Mishnah.

שׁוֹמְרֵי סְפִיחִים בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, נוֹטְלִין שְׂכָרָן מִתְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, (אַף הָרוֹצֶה) מִתְנַדֵּב שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אַף אַתָּה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאִין אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר.

1 – Just as a person can donate an animal (עולה ותודה)  or flour (מנחה) to be brought as a קרבן, one can donate wood as well. Not just firewood for the מזבח, but wood as an actual קרבן.

Small Bonfire Pile of wood logs, AI Generative 33356454 PNG

שקלים 6, 1.   הָאוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי עָלַי עֵצִים, לֹא יִפְחוֹת מִשְּׁנֵי גִּזְרִין.

One who says “I obligate myself to bring wood” (as a donation) should not bring less than two logs…”

two logs for kindling fire on an isolated background Stock Photo | Adobe Stock

2 – In מנחות כ, א we find the opinion of Reb Yossi that this קרבן of עצים is just like any other קרבן מנחה  – it requires  קמיצה הגשה ומלח and was not used as firewood for other קרבנות.

The רבנן say that it is not actually a מנחה although it was placed on the מזבח.

[Whether this קרבן עצים was used as firewood for other  קרבנות or they were placed on the מזבח not at the center fire is another topic].


The Wood Offering

3 – The regular עצים for the מערכה were purchased with the funds of the מחצית השקל and are considered a קרבן ציבור.

4 – The grains for the מנחות were also acquired with the מחצית השקל fund.

In the year of שמיטה, this becomes an issue. Since plowing, sowing etc. is prohibited, there are no ‘new’ grains produced. One could use only produce that sprouted on their own (ספיחים) which is הפקר.

Since anyone can grab them, the only way to obtain grains for the מנחות would be to send שלוחים to these fields where there is תבואה – ספיחים to watch them until ripe and then collect these self-grown grains.

כל רגע - הסבר מתומצת על דין ספיחים: הלכה יומית בענייני שמיטה

5 – The חכמים say that the salary of these שומרים also came from the מחצית השקל fund since the wheat they kept on on eye on were used for the קרבנות ציבור.

Our משנה quotes the opinion of רבי יוסי there was no need to pay for any שומרים. Anyone could volunteer to be a שומר of these fields.

Scarecrow On A Green Field Grain Guard Summer Photo Background And Picture For Free Download - Pngtree

6 – What is the basis for these different opinions? Paid security vs volunteers.

The גמרא in בבא מציעא 118א  suggests a few explanations. One is that the issue is: by just looking at an object of הפקר one is קונה. Being that this wheat is הפקר, a mere הבטה קני.

So if an individual volunteers to keep an eye on them (least someone else takes them) they become owners of this wheat and then must gift it to the בית המקדש.

The issue is that the חכמים do dot believe that such an individual gifts it 100% to the ציבור. Now since this wheat will be used a קרבן ציבור, using a volunteer is not advisable.

רבי יוסי says that an individual can indeed donate something 100% to the ציבור.

7- The גמרא continues on this topic: Paid security vs volunteers.

Are Your Security Guards Sleeping on the Job?

It begins with the famous story of the 9 families that donated wood for the מזבח at the beginning of the בית שני era. Each family chose a particular day to supply firewood at that time of great poverty.

תענית כו, א.

These were private holidays specific to certain families, on which their members would volunteer a wood offering for the altar. There were nine such days and families: On the first of Nisan, the descendants of Araḥ ben Yehuda; on the twentieth of Tammuz, the descendants of David ben Yehuda; on the fifth of Av, the descendants of Parosh ben Yehuda; on the seventh of Av, the descendants of Jonadab ben Rechab; on the tenth of Av, the descendants of Sena’a ben Binyamin; on the fifteenth of Av, the descendants of Zattu ben Yehuda…..

Family Celebration: Gathered Together - Intergenerational Faith Resources

On the twentieth of Av, the descendants of Paḥat Moav ben Yehuda; on the twentieth of Elul, the descendants of Adin ben Yehuda

8 – We mentioned that the Rebbe writes that the only place he found in ש”ס a mention of כ אב is the above גמרא.  In the footnotes he added some other sources where this day is noted. See here.

LS 4, 1103


To be continued.


קרבן  קרבן עצים. מחלוקת חכמים ורבי. מנחות. כ, א. לרבי זה קרבן בכל הפרטים – כמו מנחה.  הגשה קמיצה שמן ועצים וכו’. לרבנן אין זה קרבן ממש. וראה שם קו, ב. וברבינו גרשום ובריטב”א תענית כו, א.



Shiur Shkolim – 9b 6 Nisan 5784 – 05/14/2024


Shkolim – 9b

6 Nisan 5784. 05/14/2024

1– Our גמרא quotes the famous ברייתא of Reb Pinchos ben Yo’ir.

וְכֵן הָיָה רִבִּי פִינְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר. זְרִיזוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי נְקִיּוּת. נְקִיּוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי טַהֳרָה. טַהֳרָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי קְדוּשָּׁה. קְדוּשָּׁה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי עֲנָוָה. עֲנָוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי יִרְאַת חֵטְא. יִרְאַת חֵטְא מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חֲסִידוּת. חֲסִידוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ. רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ מֵבִיא לִידֵי תְחִייַת הַמֵּתִים. תְּחִייַת הַמֵּתִים מְבִיאָה לִידֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב.

We mentioned that this ברייתא is found in other places in ש”ס but with variations to the order.

We paused to discuss:

2– זְרִיזוּת 

Click On The Icons To Learn More - Agility Icon Clipart (#4180463) - PikPng

The Alter Rebbe in אגרת הקודש כא discusses that אברהם אבינו ‘s virtue of the  עקידה  was primarily due to his  ,זריזות , not the עקידה  itself !

וּזְרִיזוּתֵיהּ דְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ עָלָיו־הַשָּׁלוֹם הִיא הָעוֹמֶדֶת לָעַד, לָנוּ וּלְבָנֵינוּ עַד עוֹלָם,

כִּי הָעֲקֵדָה עַצְמָהּ אֵינָהּ נֶחְשָׁבָה כָּל כָּךְ לְנִסָּיוֹן גָּדוֹל לְעֵרֶךְ מַעֲלַת אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ עָלָיו־הַשָּׁלוֹם,

בְּשֶׁגַּם, כִּי ה’ דִּיבֶּר בּוֹ: “קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ כוּ'”

וַהֲרֵי כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה קְדוֹשִׁים שֶׁמָּסְרוּ נַפְשָׁם עַל קְדוּשַּׁת ה’ גַּם כִּי לֹא דִיבֶּר ה’ בָּם.

רַק שֶׁאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ עָלָיו־הַשָּׁלוֹם עָשָׂה זֹאת בִּזְרִיזוּת נִפְלָאָה,

לְהַרְאוֹת שִׂמְחָתוֹ וְחֶפְצוֹ לְמַלֹּאות רְצוֹן קוֹנוֹ וְלַעֲשׂוֹת נַחַת רוּחַ לְיוֹצְרוֹ.

וּמִמֶּנּוּ לָמְדוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ־זִכְרוֹנָם־לִבְרָכָה לְקִיּוּם כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת בִּכְלָל, וּבִפְרָט מַעֲשֵׂה הַצְּדָקָה הָעוֹלָה עַל כּוּלָּנָה

So, too, it is [the merit of] “the eager promptness of our father Abraham” (peace upon him), who hastened to the עקידה  , the binding of Isaac, that stands by us and our children, for ever.

The Binding of Isaac, a Sacred Legend for the Jerusalem Temple -

For the akedah itself, which G‑d constantly recalls, is not really regarded as so great a test in relation to the stature of our father Abraham, peace upon him,

especially considering that G‑d Himself said to him, “Please take your son…[and bring him as an offering].”

After all, there have been numerous saintly individuals who gave their lives for the sanctification of G‑d, even though He did not speak to them.

How, then, can this be considered such a great test for Abraham when G‑d Himself commanded him to offer his son?

The point is that our father Abraham (peace upon him) did this with wondrous alacrity, (2:38) for, as the verse testifies, “Abraham rose very early and [himself] saddled his donkey,” in order to demonstrate—to others as well—his joy and eager desire to fulfill the will of his Master and to bring gratification to his Maker.

Indeed, it was from [the example of Abraham], and with the power that he vested within all his descendants, that our Sages (of blessed memory) learned [that alacrity is required] in the fulfillment of all the commandments in general, and in particular with respect to the act of charity, which is superior to them all,

מצווה לא פשוטה אבל מגשימה את החלום הגדול! -

עֲנָוָה – 3

 We mentioned an interesting explanation by the Tzemach Tzedek regarding humility and its opposite – haughtiness/boasting – גאוה וגסות רוח.

In Or Hatorah (ויקרא ג, תשעה) the Tzemach Tzedek poses the question as to why ירבעם בן נבט, who was an outstanding תלמיד חכם on par with אחיה השילוני ,  fell so low turning into an עובד עבודה זרה and convincing others to do the same to the extent that as a result  אין לו חלק לעולם הבא !

Human achievement (or regression) usually follows a path of a ‘step by step’ pattern. We find this in קדושה and the opposite as well. As we see from our גמרא’s enumeration by Reb Pinchos ben Yo’ir of the ‘level by level elevation system’  to achieve  גילוי אליהו.

So what caused  ירבעם בן נבט  to swoop to the lowest step without the usual gradual descent?

The Thin Line Between Humility and Arrogance

The Tzemach Tzedek explains that as the  גמרא  says in סנהדרין

גסות הרוח שהיתה בו בירבעם טרדתו מן העולם. The arrogance,  גאוה  and  גסות רוח  was the cause for his swift downfall.

גאוה  and גסות רוח   have the ability to cause a person to ‘leap’ over the usual degrading steps to hit rock bottom in one swing.

On the reverse end of this spectrum, in קדושה, the same holds true. Whereas the usual methodical step by step system is needed to reach higher and higher, humility ענוה is a ‘ticket’ to jump and leap to a higher plane, bypassing the established route.

Holiness Without Humility Is Pride - Small Strip Magnet – Gods10com

See there for more on this.

[We mentioned parenthetically that perhaps this is the reason why in Chumash, when mentioning the נבואה of משה רבינו, which was the highest form of G-D to man communication, פֶּה אֶל פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר בּוֹ,  the פסוק inserts the words   וְהָאִישׁ מֹשֶׁה עָנָיו מְאֹד מִכֹּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה.]

Ki-Tisa: Where is Moshe | Torah In Motion

4 – In relation the fellow כהן  who entered the לשכה  to withdraw the שקלים,  fill up 3 קופות and all the precautions taken to ascertain that there is no pilfering or pocketing any of the שקלים – we mentioned an interesting  תשובה  on this topic. שו”ת תורה לשמה סימן תז. (and referenced here)

Someone wanted to test the honesty of his house servant and came up with the following idea: He would place some cash in one of the rooms in a way that to his servant it would seem that this cash fell out of the owner’s pocket. He would then send this houseboy to fetch something from this room and see if the houseboy pocketed the money!

How to Protect Yourself From Theft | 🥇 Castle Keepers

The question is: by doing so, he would perhaps cause his servant to stealת and that would constitute  לפני עור לא תתן מכשול .

The פסק of the  שו”ת תורה לשמה is that is indeed prohibited.

More so – he prohibits even if one uses the following scheme: He will gift the cash to his servant without telling him. So in case the houseboy does ‘steal’ it, it is not גניבה since it was his to take.

However sat the שו”ת תורה לשמה  even that would constitute  לפני עור לא תתן מכשול since the intention of the houseboy would be to steal it!

ומסיימין בטוב.

A gezunten zummer to all.

Happy Summer Pictures, Photos, and Images for Facebook, Tumblr, Pinterest, and Twitter



Shiur Shkolim 9a (2) – 29 Nisan 5784 – 5/7/24


Shkolim – 9a (2)

29 Nisan 5784. 05/07/2024

A few short notes:

1 – Having discussed the שיעור רביעית our גמרא diverged to discuss some הלכות pertaining to הלכות טומאה.

2 – Story of the ‘mule belonging to רבי’.

In general, a Kosher and Non Kosher בהמה or חיה that died is טמא. The שיעור is a minimum of a כזית.

A Kosher animal that went thru שחיטה is not טמא.

The issue with this famous mule was the blood of this נבילה.

6 May 2013: Coming to the Dead Mule | Phillip Thompson

Is דם נבילה in general טמא, like its flesh? If yes – what is the shiur?

3 – רבי had a רב in his court that ruled on שאלות. Interestingly his name was like רבי!

רבי יהודה.

So the Rov ruled that this דם נבילה of this mule was טהור. But that was ambiguous (to the next generation) as to why he ruled as such.

Either because his opinion was that דם נבילה in general is טהור, or דם נבילה in general is טמא but in this particular case it lacked a שיעור- which is a רביעית.

That was the topic of our גמרא.

4 – The next section discussed an incident when one אמורא asked another about the above topic. Instead of answering the question he shrugged him off. Or worse -בעט ביה. When asked why he acted in this non תלמיד חכם fashion he had a very interesting reply:

‘I can’t think straight as I am penniless and have no clue where I’ll get some breakfast tomorrow’.

The גמרא talks about this phenomena and how it’s hinted to in the תוכחה.

The רבונו של עולם needs to give us wealth so that we should be able to think clearly!

5 – In relation to this we mentioned the אבות דרבי נתן that states (אדר״נ פל״א ה״א)

רבי אחאי בן יאשיה אומר ……זמן שאדם אוכל משלו דעתו מיושבת עליו ואפילו אוכל אדם משל אביו ומשל אמו ומשל בניו אין דעתו מיושבת עליו ואין צריך לומר משל אחרים:

Charismatic Mature Farmer with Hat Eating Red Apple in Sunny Orchard Stock Photo - Image of growing, emotion: 197624052

Rabbi Ahai ben Yoshaya would say: When a person eats from his own farm, his mind is calm. However,  when a person eats food from his father’s or mother’s farm, or from his children’s farm, his mind is not calm – not to mention when he eats food from a stranger’s farm.

6 – On the above vein, the בנין יהושע  make a reference to an interesting ירושלמי in ערלה.

Very briefly:

There is מרכיב- Grafting. Which is actually splicing a twig from a selected tree to a root stock of the same or different species.

Learn how to graft apple trees with Brad Smith – Sitka Local Foods Network

Then there is מבריך – Layering. One takes a branch of a bush or some low growing plant and buries it into the soil, waits for a few months and then, after it has rooted, cuts it off and plants it somewhere else.

How to Propagate Plants by Layering - Organic Gardening Blog

Now, when layering, the branch develops roots in the ground. Before it is cut off from the tree it is receiving ‘life’ from both – the tree and the new roots.

Question: Which is the primary source of nourishment? Is it from the old tree or, because of its own roots- meaning it is a stand alone ‘new tree’. The answer manifest itself in הלכה in regards to ערלה.

If it is a new tree then the count for ערלה begins anew.

The ירושלמי  says that there is a simple way to tell where the main source of nourishment to this new branch is coming from.

Look at the leaves that are growing on this new branch. Where is it facing?

Facing the Reality of Cognitive Decline | Wealth Management

If it is facing away from the old tree, it means that it is still receiving חיות from the tree. It is facing away because ‘one cannot look in the face of the one that is feeding you’!

However if the leaves are facing the old ‘mother’ tree, then it is living from the new roots….

That is the meaning of

וְנָא אַל תַּצְרִיכֵנוּ ה’ אֱלהֵינוּ לא לִידֵי מַתְּנַת בָּשָׂר וָדָם וְלא לִידֵי הַלְוָאָתָם, כִּי אִם לְיָדְךָ הַמְּלֵאָה, הַפְּתוּחָה, הַקְּדוֹשָׁה וְהָרְחָבָה, שֶׁלּא נֵבוֹשׁ וְלא נִכָּלֵם לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד

7 – The גמרא says that the person who entered the שקלים chamber would be constantly talking the his friend on the outside. This was to ensure that he would not try to place some coins in his mouth. The גמרא asks that we could also accomplish this by having him enter with a mouth full of water…..

Vayetzei: Jacob Receives His Inheritance | Messianic Bible

The גמרא responds that it would create an issue with a ברכה.

What ברכה? Some suggest that he may swallow some of the water with out making a ברכה.

The חכם צבי writes that is incorrect since one can make שהכל on water prior to entering! He suggest that it is a ברכה of על הפרשת תרומה.

We discussed as there is no particular  מצוה  for this stage of מחצית השקל.

But see here an interesting idea from the  שו”ת פני מבין. OC 1, 5. 31.

The Chamber of the Shekels

The final act of removing the coins from the chamber into the קופות is the culmination of the מצות מחצית השקל. Indeed t is only then that a ברכה can be made.

Shiur Shkolim 9a – 8 Nissan, 5784 – 4/16/24


Shkolim – 9a

8 Nisan 5784. 04/16/2024

It’s Erev Pesach…so just some brief notes:

Erev Pesach in Boro Park - Part 3 – Boro Park 24

1- Our גמרא states the size of a cup that contains a רביעית.

We briefly mentioned the basic issue with שיעורים.

How much is a רביעית?

The גמרא states that there are two ways of measuring it.

1- A רביעית is a ¼ of a לוג. A לוג is the size of 6 eggs. Therefore a רביעית would be 1.5 eggs.

Six Bright Yellow Egg Yolks In A White Bowl Stock Photo, 42% OFF

A לוג is the size of 6 eggs.

2- A רביעית takes up a square cup of 2 thumbs x 2 thumbs x 2.7 thumbs.

[Our גמרא ירושלמי has it as 2 thumbs x 2 thumbs x 1.83333 thumbs. However the above 2.7  is the accepted number as per the בבלי in פסחים קט, א .  See Tosfos there].

i) Measurements of thumb (ii) Different contact points of thumb on the... | Download Scientific Diagram

In theory, using these two measuring systems the result should equal the same, The problem is that, at least in our days, these two methods do not match at all.

By using method 1, we arrive at 2.92 oz. [The average egg today  is 57.6 ml x 1.5 = 86.4ml]

By using method 2, we arrive at 5.04 oz. [The average thumb today is 2.4 cm. So 4.8 x 4.8 x 6.48 = 149.3 Ml].

2- Either our thumbs grew or the eggs shrunk. נתקטנו הביצים.

So which method is correct today?

Reb Chaim Naeh’s opinion is that we should follow method 1.

אברהם חיים נאה – חב"דפדיה

הגר”ח נאה

The Noda B’Yehuda’s opinion is that we should be מחמיר and use method 2.

There is a third option as per the Rambam  – רמב”ם עדיות א:ב – who used the weight of the Dirham to calculate the amount of a רביעית.

ומצאתי הרביעית הנזכרת בכל התורה תכיל מן היין קרוב כ”ו כספים הנקראים דרה”ם בערבי

He writes that the weight of 26+- Dirhams equals the weight of a רביעית of wine.

A  Dirham weighs 3.205 grams, so the weight of 26 Dirhams equals the weight of  78-80 ml of wine. That would make the רביעית   only 2.7 oz!

Morocco Dirham obverse

Dirham Coin – reads: “Kasbah Arcade, one game per coin only”

We discussed the Dirham and if its weight remained constant throughout the ages.

More contemporary opinions say the Dirham the Rambam used weighed only 3 grams (or less) resulting in an even smaller רביעית.

1 Dirham coin from Morocco - Exchange yours for cash today

Modern Dirham

3- We discussed an interesting explanation by Reb Reuven Margolis on a special חודש ניסן in the time of חזקיהו  המלך.


1- We do not say מזמור לתודה on פסח and ערב פסח since a תודה contained חמץ.

שו”ע אדה”ז או”ח תכט, יג.

ונוהגין במדינות אלו שלא לאומרה בשבת ויום טובכג מפני שאין תודה קריבה בהןכד וכן בימי הפסחכה אין תודה קריבהכו משום חמץ שבה וכן בערב פסח כמו שיתבאר בסי’ תכ”טכז

Tzav: Korban Todah – Thanking God with a Chametz and Matzah Party

2- However, we find in תנ”ך , when describing the types  of קרבנות brought upon the rededication of the בית המקדש in the time of חזקיהו, the קרבן תודה.

This was on the 16th day of the first month which is טו ניסן! The first day Chol HaMoed.

Chometz in middle of פסח?

דברי הימים  ב  כט טז

וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ הַ֠כֹּהֲנִ֠ים לִפְנִ֣ימָה בֵית־יְהֹוָה֮ לְטַהֵר֒ וַיּוֹצִ֗יאוּ אֵ֤ת כׇּל־הַטֻּמְאָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר מָֽצְאוּ֙ בְּהֵיכַ֣ל יְהֹוָ֔ה לַחֲצַ֖ר בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֑ה וַֽיְקַבְּלוּ֙ הַלְוִיִּ֔ם לְהוֹצִ֥יא לְנַחַל־קִדְר֖וֹן חֽוּצָה׃

And the priests went in to the inner part of the house of Hashem, to cleanse it, and brought out all the uncleanness that they found in the temple of Hashem into the court of the house of Hashem.

HESEKIAH. Hezekiah cleansing the temple. Illustration, c18th century

Chizkiyahu cleans the Temple…

And the Levites took it, to carry it out abroad to the brook Kidron.

יז וַ֠יָּחֵ֠לּוּ בְּאֶחָ֞ד לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן֮ לְקַדֵּשׁ֒ וּבְי֧וֹם שְׁמוֹנָ֣ה לַחֹ֗דֶשׁ בָּ֚אוּ לְאוּלָ֣ם יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיְקַדְּשׁ֥וּ אֶת־בֵּית־יְהֹוָ֖ה לְיָמִ֣ים שְׁמוֹנָ֑ה וּבְי֨וֹם שִׁשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר לַחֹ֥דֶשׁ הָרִאשׁ֖וֹן כִּלּֽוּ׃

Now they began on the first day of the first month to sanctify, and on the eighth day of the month they came to the chamber of Hashem; and they sanctified the house of Hashem in eight days; and on the sixteenth day of the first month they finished.

לא יַּ֨עַן יְחִזְקִיָּ֜הוּ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר עַתָּה֙ מִלֵּאתֶ֤ם יֶדְכֶם֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה גֹּ֧שׁוּ וְהָבִ֛יאוּ זְבָחִ֥ים וְתוֹד֖וֹת לְבֵ֣ית יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיָּבִ֤יאוּ הַקָּהָל֙ זְבָחִ֣ים וְתוֹד֔וֹת וְכׇל־נְדִ֥יב לֵ֖ב עֹלֽוֹת׃

Then Hezekiah answered and said, “Now you have consecrated yourselves to Hashem, come near and bring sacrifices and thank-offerings into the house of Hashem.” And the congregation brought in sacrifices and thank-offerings; and as many as were of a willing heart brought burnt-offerings.

3- What follows is even more perplexing. It describes what occurred the next month when they brought a פסח שני.

Having realized that the פסח ראשון was not observed, they brought the קרבן פסח in the second month חודש אייר.

ל א וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח יְחִזְקִיָּ֜הוּ עַל־כׇּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל וִיהוּדָ֗ה וְגַֽם־אִגְּרוֹת֙ כָּתַב֙ עַל־אֶפְרַ֣יִם וּמְנַשֶּׁ֔ה לָב֥וֹא לְבֵית־יְהֹוָ֖ה בִּירוּשָׁלָ֑͏ִם

לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת פֶּ֔סַח לַיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃

And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of Hashem at Jerusalem, to keep the Passover to Hashem, the God of Israel.

ב וַיִּוָּעַ֨ץ הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ וְשָׂרָ֛יו וְכׇל־הַקָּהָ֖ל בִּירוּשָׁלָ֑͏ִם לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת הַפֶּ֖סַח בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִֽי׃

For the king had taken counsel, and his princes, and the entire congregation in Jerusalem, to keep the Passover in the second month.

ג כִּ֣י לֹ֧א יָכְל֛וּ לַעֲשֹׂת֖וֹ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֑יא כִּ֤י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ לֹֽא־הִתְקַדְּשׁ֣וּ לְמַדַּ֔י וְהָעָ֖ם לֹא־נֶאֶסְפ֥וּ לִירוּשָׁלָֽ͏ִם׃

For they could not keep it at that time, because the priests had not sanctified themselves in sufficient number, neither had the people gathered themselves together to Jerusalem.

ה וַיַּעֲמִ֣ידוּ דָבָ֗ר לְהַעֲבִ֨יר ק֤וֹל בְּכׇל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִבְּאֵֽר־שֶׁ֣בַע וְעַד־דָּ֔ן לָב֞וֹא לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת פֶּ֛סַח לַיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בִּירוּשָׁלָ֑͏ִם כִּ֣י לֹ֥א לָרֹ֛ב עָשׂ֖וּ כַּכָּתֽוּב׃

So they established a decree to make proclamation throughout all Israel, from Beer-Sheba to Dan, that they should come to keep the Passover to Hashem, the God of Israel, at Jerusalem; for they had not kept it in great numbers according as it is written.

יג וַיֵּאָסְפ֤וּ יְרוּשָׁלַ֙͏ִם֙ עַם־רָ֔ב לַעֲשׂ֛וֹת אֶת־חַ֥ג הַמַּצּ֖וֹת בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֑י קָהָ֖ל לָרֹ֥ב מְאֹֽד׃

And many people assembled at Jerusalem to keep the feast of unleavened bread in the second month, a very great congregation.

4 – So far so good. פסח שני in the second month. יד אייר.

טו וַיִּשְׁחֲט֣וּ הַפֶּ֔סַח בְּאַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֑י וְהַכֹּהֲנִ֨ים וְהַלְוִיִּ֤ם נִכְלְמוּ֙ וַיִּֽתְקַדְּשׁ֔וּ וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ עֹל֖וֹת בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה׃

Then they killed the Passover lamb on the fourteenth day of the second month; and the priests and the Levites were ashamed, and sanctified themselves, and brought burnt-offerings into the house of Hashem.

Committee concerning the Korban Pesach - The Sanhedrin English

Now פסח שני is observed only one day. But they feasted for 7 days!

כא וַיַּעֲשׂ֣וּ בְנֵֽי־יִ֠שְׂרָאֵ֠ל הַנִּמְצְאִ֨ים בִּירוּשָׁלַ֜͏ִם אֶת־חַ֧ג הַמַּצּ֛וֹת שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים בְּשִׂמְחָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה וּֽמְהַלְלִ֣ים לַ֠יהֹוָ֠ה י֣וֹם ׀ בְּי֞וֹם הַלְוִיִּ֧ם וְהַכֹּהֲנִ֛ים בִּכְלֵי־עֹ֖ז לַיהֹוָֽה׃

And the children of Israel that were present at Jerusalem kept the feast of מצות  seven days with great gladness; and the Levites and the priests praised Hashem day by day, singing with loud instruments to Hashem.

5 – So how do we answer these 2 questions? Bringing a קרבן תודה on פסח and having a 7 day פסח on פסח שני?

Reb Reuven suggests the following based on the story of  חזקיהו who added  an אדר שני  that particular year.

חזקיהו waited until ראש חודש ניסן and only then added an additional Adar II.

Happy Adar (again!) The month of Adar is all about celebration, joy, and yes- blessings! Let's take a moment to thank G-d for the bless... | Instagram

The חכמים accepted this added month based on the principle of

אתם אפילו מזידין אתם אפילו מוטעין

But were not pleased with this. They cited the rule that a second Adar can only be added prior to the start of חודש ניסן.

So in reality the ‘first month’, when they brought the קרבן תודה on the 16th of the month was not טו ניסן but טו אדר שני! Thus there was no problem bringin a Chometz קרבן.

And when they brought the פסח שני on the 14th of the ‘second month’ it was not טו אייר but טו ניסן!

That is why they celebrated a full 7 days,  as it was the real  פסח ראשון.

6 – If the ‘first month’ was actually אדר שני (the 13th month) and the second month’ was really ניסן (the first month) why didn’t they write is as such?

Good question.

The answer, concludes Reb Reuven, is that the חכמים wanted to record their disapproval on what חזקיהו did!

Therefore they recorded the months they way it should have been!

נפש חיה סימן תכט.


A Kosher and Happy Pesach to all.