Shiur Shkolim 7a – 18

BSD

Shkolim 7a

18 Adar 1, 5784. 02/27/24

1 We finished the קדשים topics with our גמרא discussing the  מותר (extra) of bread and wine brought by a נזיר.

2- We mentioned an interesting explanation by the כתב סופר on the  מחצית השקל and פורים.

מחצית השקל 2024 - תרומה אונליין באמצעות בית חב"ד ❤️

Firstly, why מחצית only?

Briefly, בני ישראל when they got involved in the חטא העגל, were split into two groups.

כיצד חטאו בחטא העגל לאחר מעמד הר-סיני? - הידברות

Those that actually worshiped this עבודה זרה, and those that planned to worship the עגל but never got around to it.

Why We Procrastinate, Part 1: Defining Procrastination - Twintel

The former group were dealt with by the בני לוי or perished in the מגיפה. The latter group was spared and it was to them that the commandment of מחצית השקל was directed.

A מחצית only, since their sin was only במחשבה – a מחצית   עבירה, the intent to worship the golden calf. This מחצית השקל was a  full a כפרה on the מחצית עבירה .מחשבה.

Now the גמרא relates that when המן ‘purchased’ with עשרת אלפים ככר כסף the rights from אחשוורוש to annihilate בני ישראל, Hashem told him ‘the שקלים’ given by בני ישראל preceded your שקלים!

What is the meaning of this?

Half-Angle Formulas -- from Wolfram MathWorld

Explains the כתב סופר that המן knew that the גזירה upon the בני ישראל was a result of  עבודה זרה in the time of נבוכדנצר.

שאלו תלמידיו את רשב”י מפני מה נתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל שבאותו הדור כליה אמר להם אמרו אתם אמרו לו מפני שנהנו מסעודתו של אותו רשע. אם כן שבשושן יהרגו שבכל העולם כולו אל יהרגו? אמרו לו אמור אתה.

אמר להם מפני שהשתחוו לצלם אמרו לו וכי משוא פנים יש בדבר אמר להם הם לא עשו אלא לפנים אף הקב”ה לא עשה עמהן אלא לפנים והיינו דכתיב (איכה ג, לג) כי לא ענה מלבו: מגילה יב, א

Bowing to our Idols | Digging Daily with Pastor Michael

However, he also knew that that particular sin was a result of Jews being forced to bow down to עבודה זרה. In other words, an עבירה with מעשה without מחשבה.

So his calculation was to ‘join’ the lingering half sin from the חטא העגל במחשבה, with the half sin of עבודה זרה במעשה of the time of נבוכדנצר . Combining these two halves המן thought will create a negative ‘full’ עבירה and would be a reason for his scheme to work.

The Creative Apple Combined From Two Half Stock Photo - Download Image Now - Two Objects, Slice of Food, Apple - Fruit - iStock

Unknown to him was the Mitzvah of giving a מחצית השקל.

As above, ‘the שקלים’ given by בני ישראל preceded his שקלים and wiped out the מחשבה half. There was a כפרה on the half of the עבירה  of the חטא העגל.

What was left was only half an עבירה, the מעשה portion, [the half sin of עבודה זרה במעשה of the time of נבוכדנצר] and therefore the גזירה was נתבטל.

3- The next משנה deals on how to deal with the extra or left over funds from a collection לדבר מצוה such as פדיון שבויים.

The Story of a Nation That Redeems Its Captives

We spent some time talking about the unique הלכה of הקדש that as opposed to non-הקדש one cannot gift or acquire an object unless a proper קנין is made.

With הקדש however, just by saying ‘I am gifting this to a Shul’ the object instantly becomes the property of the Shul. This is known as

אמירתו לגבוה כמסירתו להדיוט.

What about צדקה? As the Shulchan Aruch clearly states this rule applies to צדקה as well. See below YD 258, 13,

We also discussed if promising to give a specific amount to צדקה is considered a נדר.

Iconic 770 Multi-Pushka Gets an Upgrade - Anash.org

We mentioned the two opinions quoted by the רמ”א (YD 258 13) if one commits mentally to give צדקה but does not utter it – is he obligated to give it?

 

To be continued BL”N next shiur.

4- A famous and perplexing saying by רבן שמעון בן גמליאל that many have attempted to explain.

תני רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אין עושין נפשות לצדיקים, דבריהם הן הן זכרונן.

Simply translated is that we do not place a מצבה or build a ציון stop a קבר of a צדיק.

קברי צדיקים במרוקו | גילי חסקין – מדריך טיולים

The Rambam writes this להלכה.

(הלכות אבל ד,ד): “ובונין נפש על הקבר, והצדיקים אין בונים להם נפש על קברותיהם, שדבריהם הם זכרונם”.

How does this jive with the long history of Jews placing tombstones or large structures atop the קברים of צדיקים???

מידע לדרך קברי צדיקים במרוקו-מידע,טיפים והמלצות,כתבות על קברי צדיקים במרוקו

5- We mentioned what the כתב סופר (YD 189) said at the consecration of the ציון on his father’s, the חתם סופר, burial place.

A grave site serves a double purpose says the כתב סופר:

A – for the נשמה of the deceased by marking the location of his resting place so people can come and pray for his soul.

B – for the people to know this specific location to pray for themselves.

Now when talking about the נשמה of a צדיק, being a righteous person, he personally has no need for people to pray for his soul since, despite having departed this world, his תורה is constantly being recited. The repeating of his תורה is a constant benefit for his נשמה.

מידע לדרך קברי צדיקים במרוקו-מידע,טיפים והמלצות,כתבות על קברי צדיקים במרוקו

Thus, the only reason to build a ציון is for the benefit of the living.

So the meaning of what רבן שמעון בן גמליאל said,  אין עושין נפשות לצדיקים is that a ציון is not built for צדיקים as they don’t need it.

It is only built for those who will come to Daven at his קבר.

We mentioned the fascinating story of how the חתם סופר’s grave survived when the fascists/communists built a road thru the Jewish cemetery in Pressburg/ Bratislava, Slovakia. Much ingenuity was used to preserve this site.

See here and here. If you’re planning a visit, remember to book in advance.

בעל שו”ת כתב סופר (יו”ד סימן קעח) אמר ביום הקמת המצבה על קברו של אביו, החתם סופר, שהתועלת בהקמת מצבה היא גם לנשמתו של הנפטר וגם לאנשים הבאים לפקוד את קברו. התועלת לנשמתו היא בזכרון הנפטר, שלא ישכחו להתפלל בעד נשמתו, ומלבד זאת יש תועלת למתפללים במקום קבורתו של צדיק שבאמצעות המצבה הם מזהים את המקום ויודעים היכן לעמוד ולהתפלל, וכוונת הגמרא היא שאין עושים נפשות לצדיקים לצורך הצדיק, כי אין לנשמתו צורך שיתפללו עליה, שהרי דברי התורה שלה ממשיכים לפעול בעולם, אולם לתועלת האנשים הרוצים להתפלל שם, שידעו את מקום קבורת הצדיק, יש צורך לבנות מצבה על קברו.

 

 

Shiur Shkilim 6b (2) 11 Adar I, 5784 – 2/20/24

BSD

Shkolim 6b (2)

Adar I 11, 5784. February 20, 2024

Our גמרא was a rather complicated קדשים sugya concerning לשמה and פיגול.

One short note:

We previously encountered the idea that according to בית הלל, an error when being מקדיש is null and void. טעות בהקדש אינו הקדש.

This concept of  אין הקדש בטעות is used in another totally different (and amusing) case.

טבעת מקודשת מט | טבעות נישואין מיוחדות בכיתובים אישיים | גלריית אבינו

The case is of a fellow ראובן, that sent שמעון as a שליח to be מקדש לאה, for him. לאה lived in another city and upon the שליח arriving in this city he coordinated with the town leaders and showed them his proxy documentation from ראובן.

After choosing proper עדים for the קידושין he went thru the proper ritual in front of them by saying  ’הרי את מקודשת לראובן.

Afterwards, the above the עדים said that what they heard him say was actually הרי את מקודשת לי!

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When the עדים asked him “why did you say לי”? The שליח swears that “I thought I said הרי את מקודשת לראובן, and חס ושלום I did not mean it for myself. Especially as I already have a wife and how can I hurt her by marrying another woman?”

We digressed to discuss if the חרם דרבינו גרשום had already been enacted. It was indeed after the חרם was accepted, at least in Europe.

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רבנו גרשום (מכונה רבינו גרשום מאור הגולה או רגמ”ה; דתשך 960[1]דתשפח 1028)

רבי מאיר ב”ר ברוך מרוטנבורג נודע בשם המהר”ם מרוטנבורג (אחרי דתתקפ (1220) – יט באייר הנג (1293))

“And if I did indeed say לי, it was because there was a commotion etc”.

Commotion - Free arrows icons

The שליח immediately went over to the woman and said הרי את מקודשת’ לראובן’.

So now the question is who is she married to? ראובן or שמעון?

Visit Rothenburg of the holy MAHARAM | Jewish Traveler ותוליכנו לשלום

The Maharam of Rothenburg was asked this question and ruled that the שליח is believed that it was an error on his part and has to validity. He bases it on the above opinion of בית הלל that הקדש בטעות is אינו הקדש.

 

Shiur Shkolim 6b Adar I 4, 5784. 02/13/24

בס”ד

BS”D

Shkolim 6b

Adar I 4, 5784. February 13, 2024

Some short notes:

1- Our גמרא offers a reason for the מצווה of פדיון הבן by giving 5 שקלים to the כהן.

סדר פדיון הבן - קו ההלכה הספרדי

רִבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה רִבִּי לֵוִי בְשֵׁם רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ. לְפִי שֶׁמָּכְרוּ בְכוֹרָהּ שֶׁל רָחֵל בְּעֶשְׂרִים כֶּסֶף יְהֵא כָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד [פוֹדֶה אֶת] בְּנוֹ בְכוֹרוֹ בּעֶשְׂרִים כֶּסֶף.

‘Because they (שבטים) sold the בכור of רחל for 20 silver coins they should pay for their first born 20 silver coins’.

The math is: 20 silver coins equals 5 שקל.

פדיון הבן – Apps on Google Play

2 – The question as asked by the משך חכמה :

רבי מאיר שמחה הכהן, צולם בשנת 1924

הרב מאיר שמחה הכהן מדווינסק

It’s amazing that the (descendants of) Yosef (the victim), need to give פדיון הבן to the (descendants of) Levi who was the seller!

3 – In continuation of last week, the idea that the מחצית השקל is a כפרה for the מכירת יוסף, we discussed the various explanation on how there were 10 (out of the 12)  שבטים associated in the מכירת יוסף.

The issue is – יוסף was the victim. בנימין was not present at all. ראובן was not present at the time of the sale.

מכירת יוסף

The קרבן העדה removes יוסף and בנימין. Others remove ראובן and בנימין, while including יוסף since he caused the hate of his brothers against him.

4 – We now entered a סוגיא in קדשים which will be IYH continued next week.

The point discussed is the uniqueness of the קרבן פסח as being the only קרבן that can be switched to another קרבן type – namely a שלמים.

בהעלותך": השלמות שבהרגשת החיסרון

This chart of פסוקים was used to get an idea of the concepts.

צאן – שה

כבש – איל – טלה.  Sheep

עז – תיש –  גדי – שעיר. Goats

בקר

עגל – שור- פרה – פר – Bull – cow  – ox

שמות פרק יב –                פסח

ג דַּבְּרוּ, אֶל-כָּל-עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר, בֶּעָשֹׂר, לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה:  וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם, אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית-אָבֹת–שֶׂה לַבָּיִת.  ד וְאִם-יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת, מִהְיוֹת מִשֶּׂה–וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֶל-בֵּיתוֹ, בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת:  אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ, תָּכֹסּוּ עַל-הַשֶּׂה.  ה שֶׂה תָמִים זָכָר בֶּן-שָׁנָה, יִהְיֶה לָכֶם; מִן-הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן-הָעִזִּים, תִּקָּחוּ.

 דברים פרק טז, ב

א שָׁמוֹר, אֶת-חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב, וְעָשִׂיתָ פֶּסַח, לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ:  כִּי בְּחֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב, הוֹצִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם–לָיְלָה.  ב וְזָבַחְתָּ פֶּסַח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, צֹאן וּבָקָר, בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר-יִבְחַר יְהוָה, לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם.

ויקרא פרק א –                 עולה

א וַיִּקְרָא, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה; וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָיו, מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר.  ב דַּבֵּר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם, אָדָם כִּי-יַקְרִיב מִכֶּם קָרְבָּן, לַיהוָה–מִן-הַבְּהֵמָה, מִן-הַבָּקָר וּמִן-הַצֹּאן, תַּקְרִיבוּ, אֶת-קָרְבַּנְכֶם.

ג אִם-עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן-הַבָּקָר, זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ; אֶל-פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, יַקְרִיב אֹתוֹ, לִרְצֹנוֹ, לִפְנֵי יְהוָה.

י וְאִם-מִן-הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן-הַכְּשָׂבִים אוֹ מִן-הָעִזִּים, לְעֹלָה–זָכָר תָּמִים, יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ.

 פרק ב –                  שלמים

א וְאִם-זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים, קָרְבָּנוֹ–אִם מִן-הַבָּקָר, הוּא מַקְרִיב, אִם-זָכָר אִם-נְקֵבָה, תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה.

ו וְאִם-מִן-הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ לְזֶבַח שְׁלָמִים, לַיהוָה–זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה, תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ.  ז אִם-כֶּשֶׂב הוּא-מַקְרִיב, אֶת-קָרְבָּנוֹ–וְהִקְרִיב אֹתוֹ, לִפְנֵי יְהוָה.  יב וְאִם עֵז, קָרְבָּנוֹ–וְהִקְרִיבוֹ, לִפְנֵי יְהוָה.

פרק ה –                  חטאת

ה וְהָיָה כִי-יֶאְשַׁם, לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה:  וְהִתְוַדָּה–אֲשֶׁר חָטָא, עָלֶיהָ.  ו וְהֵבִיא אֶת-אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן-הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה, אוֹ-שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים–לְחַטָּאת; וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן, מֵחַטָּאתוֹ.

פרק ה –                  אשם

יז וְאִם-נֶפֶשׁ, כִּי תֶחֱטָא, וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל-מִצְוֺת יְהוָה, אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה; וְלֹא-יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם, וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ.  יח וְהֵבִיא אַיִל תָּמִים מִן-הַצֹּאן, בְּעֶרְכְּךָ לְאָשָׁם–אֶל-הַכֹּהֵן; וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר-שָׁגָג, וְהוּא לֹא-יָדַע–וְנִסְלַח לוֹ.  יט אָשָׁם, הוּא:  אָשֹׁם אָשַׁם, לַיהוָה.

 

 

 

 

Shiur Shkolim 6a (3) Shvat 27, 5784 02/06/24

BSD

Shkolim 6a (3)

Shvat 27, 5784. February 6, 2024

An enlightening observation made by the Rebbe that is somewhat related to our גמרא.

ירושלמי שקלים ב’:ג’:ה

רִבִּי פִּינְחָס בְּשֵׁם רִבִּי לֵוִי. לְפִי שֶׁמָּכְרוּ בְכוֹרָהּ שֶׁל רָחֵל בְּעֶשְׂרִים כֶּסֶף וְנָפַל לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן טִבַּע לְפִיכַךְ יְהֵא כָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן נוֹתֵן שִׁקְלוֹ טִבַּע.

1- Reb Pinchas said in the name of Reb Levi the reason behind the מצווה of מחצית השקל is a כפרה for the 10 שבטים that sold Yosef.

What price did they sell him for? It says in פרשת וישב that Yosef was sold for 20 silver coins דינרים.

וַיַּֽעַבְרוּ֩ אֲנָשִׁ֨ים מִדְיָנִ֜ים סֹֽחֲרִ֗ים וַֽיִּמְשְׁכוּ֙ וַיַּֽעֲל֤וּ אֶת־יוֹסֵף֙ מִן־הַבּ֔וֹר וַיִּמְכְּר֧וּ אֶת־יוֹסֵ֛ף לַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִ֖ים בְּעֶשְׂרִ֣ים כָּ֑סֶף וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ אֶת־יוֹסֵ֖ף מִצְרָֽיְמָה׃

The story of Joseph sold into Egypt – The Documentary Hypothesis In Effect |No

A שקל\סלע equals 4 דינרים. So 20 silver coins equals 5 שקלים\סלעים.

Dividing the 20 silver coins  or 5 שקלים\סלעים by the 10 שבטים that participated in the sale of יוסף, equals a half a שקל\סלע per each שבט!

[We still need to understand why all 12 שבטים of כלל ישראל are obligated to give מחצית השקל]

2- Now the ancient question is how do we get to 10 participants when discussing מכירת יוסף?

Firstly, בנימין was not there. Secondly, although ראובן was there when they originally planned to kill him he was not present when they actually sold him. [He was shocked when he returned to the pit and יוסף was not there]

So we’re down to 9.

We will discuss some answers next week IY”H.

3- Now, hundreds of years later, (228?), at the חנוכת המשכן the 12 נשיאים donated numerous gifts to the משכן. Amongst them was a שעיר עזים אחד לחטאת.

This חטאת seems out of place in this נדבה for the משכן. It is explained  that the idea behind it was a כפרה for the מכירת יוסף.

אבי הראל: קורבן חטאת – היבטים נוספים - ייצור ידע

So here too the same question pops up.

Why did שבט יוסף need this חטאת? He was the victim…?

Why did ראובן and בנימין need כפרה as above?

4- The Rebbe (LS 8, page 46, footnote 33) suggests that in regards to יוסף perhaps the reason is that he indirectly ‘caused’ the hatred to him by telling the brothers his dreams.

But בנימין?

in the words of the Rebbe:

“על שלא חפשו אותו כל השנים”!

These few words perhaps encapsulate the Rebbe’s outlook on the obligation of every Jew to his brothers.

Binyomin’s did not search for his brother יוסף.

Private Investigation - Missing Person Investigations

Binyomin, was was not present at the time of the מכירה. True enough. But  by not searching for his brother he is faulted as much as the ones who actually sold יוסף and needs to bring a חטאת.

5- Our גמרא also states that one must give at least a third of a  השקל per year.

רִבִּי חִלְקִיָּה בְשֵׁם רִבִּי אָחָא. מִיכָּן שֶׁאָדָם צָרִיךְ לְשַׁלֵּשׁ שִׁקְלוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה פְעָמִים בַַּשָּׁנָה.

This is not the מצווה of מחצית השקל but the minimum צדקה one must give every year.

Chabad Of Nigeria - We are live! www ...

Here's to The Village

A similar גמרא is in בבא בתרא.

9a.

אָמַר רַב אַסִּי זלְעוֹלָם אַל יִמְנַע אָדָם עַצְמוֹ [מִלָּתֵת] שְׁלִישִׁית הַשֶּׁקֶל בְּשָׁנָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחמיה י,

לג) וְהֶעֱמַדְנוּ עָלֵינוּ מִצְוֹת לָתֵת עָלֵינוּ שְׁלִישִׁית הַשֶּׁקֶל בַּשָּׁנָה לַעֲבוֹדַת בֵּית אֱלֹהֵינוּ

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We mentioned that this is actually a הלכה in שלחן ערוך. YD 249, 2, Shach 4.

See the ש”ך where he mentions the מנהג of the גבאי צדקה  walking around the שול on Mondays and Thursdays collecting coins so that even by giving him small coins one will reach a ⅓ of a שקל per year!

112 Tzedakah Money Images, Stock Photos, 3D objects, & Vectors | Shutterstock

He concludes: .ומנהג נכון הוא

6 – We finished the story of last week about the question asked to the  מהרי”ט concerning an אפוטרופוס that donated a large sum of money for a רפואה for the young orphan.

The issue was if this was permissible since an executor of a trust can spend funds of the trust only on items that have a ‘limit’. Such a buying for the יתום  a לולב.

צדקה however, in not allowed because ,אין להם קצבה’, it has no limit.

Now what does קצבה or limit mean?

The מהרי”ט quotes our משנה to understand the definition of קצבה- limit.

מחצית השקל says Reb Shimon has a limit – only an exact מחצית השקל. A חטאת on the other hand has no limit since the cost of an animal can run up to a very large sum. Based on this interpretation of קצבה, donating for a מי שברך has no limit.

💲💲💲 $1.51 MILLION BULL WORLD RECORD BREAKING BLACK ANGUS SOLD AT AUCTION SCHAFF VALLEY ANGUS - YouTube

However, the מהרי”ט’s bottom line is that a non  קצבה item means  it is a constant occurrence – like צדקה for the poor. It’s endless.

מצוות that do not occur on a constant basis are considered קצבה. They are limited since it may not occur again and thus will not deplete the trust.

Therefore the אפוטרופוס did nothing wrong since it he donated  צדקה for an ailment that is not recurring.

His ruling: an אפוטרופוס should indeed donate by estimating how much the orphan would have pledged based upon the value of the trust.

 

 

 

 

Shiur Shkolim 6a (2) Shvat 20, 5784 – 01/31/24

BS”D

Shkolim 6a (2)

Shvat 20, 5784. January 31, 2024

1- משנה.

Collecting small amounts of money for the purposes of having enough coins when the time arrives to give the מחצית השקל.

This collection can play out in a few scenarios.

Scenario #1- One begins placing small amounts by saying “these coins are for the מחצית השקל”.

Circulated Israeli Coins for sale | eBay

Scenario #2 – He says “my מחצית השקל will be from these coins”.

[One could of course say nothing and probably avoid all issues]

The difference is when it’s time to actually take from this bowl a מחצית השקל and one realizes that there is more than one מחצית השקל.

What do we do with the extras? Is it הקדש or not.

When saying “these coins are for the מחצית השקל”(Scenario #1) it implies, (if it turns out that the person erred in giving too much, that somewhat) perhaps all the coins become הקדש. Meaning the השקל מחצית and all the rest are הקדש.   It is a טעות הקדש.

The opinion of בית שמאי is that any הקדש made in error is considered הקדש. According to בית שמאי the entire collection is הקדש. According to בית הלל the extra coins are חולין. Pirsum Torah Aliyah Plaques Set Of 20 – Pirsum Judaica, 44% OFF

[We discussed a case of someone bidding $500 for an עליה thinking that the last bid was $450 (and he upped it by $50) when in reality he misheard and the last bid was only $250! Does he pay $300 or $500?]

However, if he said before placing the first coin into the bowl:

“my מחצית השקל will be from these coins”, (Scenario #2) even בית שמאי would agree that only one half a Shekel becomes הקדש and the rest remain חולין. The reason is that he only meant to take one מחצית השקל when the time comes.

2- We discussed why this does not trigger the famous ברירה question.

ברירה means a ‘retroactive designation’. Like drinking from a bottle of wine of טבל, prior to taking out the percentages for תרומה  and מעשר.

The Best Kosher Wine in Israel May or May Not Be From Israel | Arts & Culture| Smithsonian Magazine

 

If ברירה  works, then he can drink the wine as long as he leaves the minimum for תרומה ומעשר at the bottom of the bottle.

By leaving the required amount in the bottle we then apply יש ברירה and  retroactively designate and say: What is left is/was the תרומה ומעשר that took effect before he started to drink.

Almost empty wine glass hi-res stock photography and images - Alamy

May sound funny – but that is the idea behind יש ברירה.

להלכה we do not accept this with items that are דאורייתא. So drinking before הפרשת תרומה ומעשר is not allowed להלכה.

So back to this collection of coins. How can he keep on adding to this pile of coins and at the end just choose a מחצית השקל and the rest remains חולין?

We are basically saying that the מחצית השקל that he took out is the one that originally was הקדש. That sounds a lot like ברירה.

3- Related to ברירה we touched briefly on the author of the שו”ת עונג יום טוב, Reb יום טוב ליפא הלפרין.  The writer was a  מתנגד that (according to some historians) was ousted from his position as the Rov of Mezritch when he decided to place the חסידים of this city in חרם!  See here.

Frontispiece of Rabbi Refael Yom-Tov Lipman Halpern book of Responsa She'elot UTeshuvot Oneg Yom Tov, 1880.

4- We spoke about a case when בית דין is unsure on how to write a גט and להלכה need to write two גיטין to ensure that at least one is כשר. The בית דין writes two גיטין and the husband then gives his wife the two גיטין one after the other. EH 129, 18-19.

Here too we may have the issue of ברירה because when the husband gives the first גט he is unsure if that is a  valid  גט or just a scrap of paper..

How to write "get" in cursive

The נודע ביהודה writes that in his בית דין he would write two גיטין but would not tell the husband. Only after the husband gave the first he would tell him that the בית דין realized that the גט has an problem and they need to write another one. All of this is to avoid the ברירה issue.

5- The above mentioned עונג יום טוב has a novel idea on the above גיטין dilemma and brings support from our גמרא. See here #166.

His point is that ברירה is an issue only when at the time that the action happened it was necessary to know what occurred. Like the case of drinking from the flask before giving תרומה ומעשר.

One needs to know before drinking any wine what in the bottle is תרומה ומעשר and what is not. That is the definition of הפרשה.  To separate the תרומה and the balance becoming  edible חולין.

Using ברירה allows us to retroactively designate what is what.

Since, as above, we do not accept ברירה at the דאורייתא level, drinking in such a manner is prohibited.

However, says the עונג יום טוב, when there is no need to know at the time what is what, then all would agree that there there is no need for ברירה.

Therefore, in the case of the 2 גיטין, there is no issue with ברירה, since the husband does not care and/or need to know which גט will do the job.

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His proof is from our גמרא. We allow for the collection of coins to take place and say that only the single coin that will be chosen for the מחצית השקל is הקדש. The rest is חולין.

What about ברירה? It is obvious that ברירה is not a concern here. Why?

Because all coins look alike and one does not care which coin will eventually be ‘the chosen one’.

קצבה מוכרת – איפה הטבת המס בקצבת הפנסיה? | סיטרין ייעוץ פנסיוני

6 – We began to talk about another interesting topic also related to our גמרא.

The משנה states that unlike מחצית השקל that is limited in the sense that one can only give an exact מחצית השקל, when collecting money for a חטאת, any mount left is הקדש. The cost of a חטאת has no limit.

The term used is:

אמר רבי שמעון מה בין שקלים לחטאת אלא של שקלים יש להן קצבה ולחטאת אין לה קצבה ריהודה אומר אף לשקלים אין להן קצבה

This concept (קצבה) is also used in regards to the amount that an אפוטרופוס can spend from the trust of an orphan.

An executor of a trust can  spend money of the trust only on items that have a ‘limit’. Such a buying for the יתום  a לולב.

צדקה however in not allowed because ,אין להם קצבה’. There is no limit.

Dollars Wave Money Tsunami Blue Sky Stock Illustration 155316398 | Shutterstock

The case we began to discuss was an אפוטרופוס that donated large amounts of צדקה for a יתום that became ill.

② Joseph Trani (1568–1639) Maharit - Sheelot u-Teshubot — Antiquités | Livres & Manuscrits — 2ememain

This case is discussed at length by Reb Yossef Trani also known as the מהריט so of the famous מבי”ט. See here.

To be continued.

ומסיימין בטוב.

 

Shiur Shkoim 5b(2)-6a – Shvat 13, 5784. 01/23/2024

BSD

Shkolim 5b(2) – 6a

Shvat 13, 5784 –  01/23/2024

1- משנה. Case of a שליח that accepted to deliver someone’s מחצית השקל to the גזבר and upon arriving decides to give it as his own.

The issues are:

גניבה- he used someone’s שקל for his own use.

תשלומין- he needs to repay the שקל to the sender.

Return To Sender - Ralph Nader Radio Hour

מעילה- if he delivered it after ראש חודש ניסן, when it belongs to הקדש, he was מועל.

2- The גמרא explains that מעילה is only when he tells the גזבר ‘this is from me’. If he gives it סתם, then nothing happened since it is considered that the משלח gave it.

Just Put It On My Bill Duck | Zazzle

The גמרא compares this to someone who steals an עולה and proceeds to bring it to the בית המקדש as his own קרבן . When he arrives with this stolen  עולה to the כהן at the מזבח he does not advise him that his intention is for his own sake. The הלכה is that the קרבן is considered as a קרבן for the original owner.

3- We mentioned that this הלכה  was used by the חתם סופר (YD 345) on a totally different topic.

Here is the story in short:

Today the ‘מנהג’ is that multiple חיובים can say the קדיש all at the same time.

8 Insights for a More Meaningful Kaddish - Chabad.org

However, up until a few hundred years ago, in Europe, only one קדיש reciter would be allowed. If there were multiple חיובים, there is a ‘list’ as to who gets priority. See Ramo YD 376, 4 and מגן אברהם OC 132, 2.

(see below from Zev Sero).

Now, a wealthy couple’s wife passed away  and had no son to say Kadish for her.  The husband therefore hired a מלמד to say קדיש in her memory.

As there were other חיובים in this Shul, they refused to allow this מלמד to say קדיש  since he is not a relative of the deceased woman. He is just ‘a ge’dungener קדיש’ so he is not on the above list of priorities.

A site to order Kaddish for your loved ones takes a page from Nathan Englander's latest book - Jewish Telegraphic Agency

The גביר, having connections with the ‘machers’ of the city, threatened that if they will not allow his hired קדיש זאגער he will get the אקרו”ט, to disallow all the other חיובים to say קדיש!

Who is this אקרו”ט? We discussed the power that the leaders of the קהילה had in days of old. אקרו”ט means  אלופים, קצינים, רבנים וטובים

הרב הצבאי מבקש סיוע מרבני ההסדר: תדווחו לי על בעיות שירות משותף מהשטח - TOV אקטואליה יהודית

אלופים, קצינים, רבנים וטובים

See here. Some קהילות still use this term. See here.

So the חתם סופר was asked if a hired קדיש has any rights to get a slot when there are other חיובים.

He first quotes the opinion of רבי יוחנן of Troyes, who was one of the ראשונים, that on hired קדיש does indeed have a right to ‘get on line’.

[We mentioned in passing that the city of Troyes is where Rashi was born and studied until moving to Germany for 10 or so years. Eventually Rashi returned to Troyes where he is buried. ]

A discussion on Treves/Troyes

Raymond Moretti's sculpture for Rashi | World Jewish Travel

Sculpture for Rashi, in Troyes

After analyzing the issues at length he comes to the conclusion that the rights of every member in a קהילה is a form of a partnership. When a member passes away he loses these rights.

However, his relatives have an obligation of their own to ‘help’ the נשמה of their deceased relative. But a hired קדיש has no moral obligation to say the קדיש and therefore is not included in the roster of the קדיש-sayers.

He concludes by saying that regardless, they should find a way to satisfy this גביר by allowing his hired קדיש-sayer to share a slot.

And then the Chasam Sofer adds another interesting point based on our גמרא.

Forcing yourself, against the wishes of another קדיש-sayer, to recite your own קדיש (or grabbing the עמוד) is not advisable.

How to Daven in These Trying Times - Anash.org

‘As I heard in my youth in the name of the שב יעקב, that if one ‘grabs away’ a קדיש that belongs to another, the ‘chaper’  gains nothing for himself and does not diminish the זכות of the person who he grabbed it from!

Why? The קדיש that he says goes to the benefit of the person whom he shoved aside!

Adds the חתם סופר – our גמרא is proof for this. As mentioned above:

someone who steals an עולה and proceeds to bring it to the בית המקדש as his own קרבן . When he arrives with this stolen  עולה to the כהן at the מזבח he does not advise him that his intention is for his own sake. The הלכה is that the קרבן is considered as a קרבן for the original owner’.

Zev Sero:

Yekkes and Ashkenazim (i.e. Oberlanders), as well as some others,  still keep the original minhag that only one person can say kaddish.  At KAJ an אבל is lucky to get a turn once a week.

 

 

Shiur Shkolim 5b 01/16/24

BSD

Shkolim 5b

Shvat 6, 5784. January 16, 2024

Short notes for this week:

1- We discussed the topic of what happens on Rosh Chodesh Nisan, when the first batch is used by the גזברים to purchase animals used on that day.

We spoke about it last week and now, to clarify, we gave an example if worldwide, there are 10 million eligible מחצית השקל donors.

However, by Rosh Chodesh Nisan only 8 million have arrived. One million has been donated but has not arrived to Yerusholayim, The other million has yet to be donated – it eventually will be donated and arrive by the end of Adar of next year.

The גזברין need to have in mind, when taking some of the 8 million in the pot, also the other 2 million that have not arrived. They are donating for them as well.

Money changer jew hi-res stock photography and images - Alamy

כשהוא תורם מתכוין לתרום על הגבוי שיש בלשכה. ועל הגבוי שעדיין לא הגיע ללשכה. ועל העתיד לגבות כדי שיהיו אלו השקלים שהוציאן להסתפק מהן כפרה על ישראל וכאילו הגיעו כל שקליהן ללשכה ונתרמה מהן תרומה זו:

 2- The Maharil uses this concept, of the גזברין donating for people that have  donated yet, on a totally different topic.

The ראשונים write a הלכה which seems difficult to understand.

When giving מעשר כספים, a tenth of what one earned, one needs first to earn the profit. Meaning, whenever one makes a חשבון of the amount he was blessed with, he needs to donate 10% to צדקה

[We glanced over this מצוה and the discussion of whether it is מדאורייתא, מדרבנן or a מנהג]

Now say the year begins and no profit has yet been earned. A poor person knocks on the door and asks for a donation. You have not earned yet and therefore have no מעשר money to give him.

The ראשונים (also in the שלחן ערוך-  YD 257, 5) suggests you do the following:

Give him money as a ‘loan’. Technically he needs to repay you.

5 common reasons to borrow right now

When BEH, your earnings arrive at a later date, you take these earnings, designate 10% of them as מעשר  and then  ‘pay’ yourself back the loan.

Once the loan is ‘paid back’ the עני owes you nothing since you have been repaid!

General Endowment Loan Has Been Paid in Full! – Epworth United Methodist Church

3- In theory it makes sense. But, the מהרי”ל was asked, at the time of the loan, you have not earned your profit yet and not obligated to give מעשר, – so how can you give it then as מעשר? It’s a דבר שלא בא לעולם!

One cannot say: the apples in this bushel are תרומה for the apples that will grow in a few months time!

Apple Bushel from Food Share - unsweetened.ca

The מהרי”ל first answers that as opposed to תרומה that is מן התורה,

מעשר כספים is מדרבנן

Additionally, he uses the concept of the גזברין above to explain this הלכה.

The גזברין have the power to consider the future arrival of the שקלים as if they have arrived.

שו”ת מהרי”ל סימן נד

 

 

Shiur Shkolim 5a – 01/09/24

BSD

Shkolim 5a

Teves 28, 5784. January 9, 2024

1- New משנה.

For the ease of travel of the שליח that is bringing up the מחצית השקל to ירושלים, the collectors may exchange all the collected silver מחצית השקל, into coins of gold.

The Gold and Silver Exchange - Western Michigan's most trusted Exchange

2- Exchanging it into a diamond is not allowed since the market price for gems may fluctuate down and cause a loss to הקדש.

The term used in our גמרא is מרגליות. We mentioned the different opinions if that is a diamond or a pearl.

Diamonds and Pearls Incorporated | Nyack NY

3 – We discussed the general view of the משנה and גמרא on inflation. The value of money (coins of gold or silver) is always constant. It is only the commodities that fluctuate in price.

In other words, the value of a Shekel is always a Shekel. That is a constant.

When there is inflation, it is the price of wheat, for example, that is more expensive.

Wheat Prices Spell Pain for Consumers | Manhattan Institute

4 – As a preface to the next part of the משנה, we spoke about the chronological order of the מחצית השקל from the initial giving to the actual usage of the coins for purchasing קרבנות.

We used as an example, the מחצית השקל originating in a small shtetl in Israel which is a 5 day trek to ירושלים.

Rosh Chodesh Adar – Proclamation for all to give.

15th of Adar – Local collector sets up a Pushka and begins collecting and placing them into a שופר shaped box. Wide on the bottom and narrow at the top to keep sticky fingers out…. See here.

 

The local collecter keeps track of all locals that donated and pawns the assets of the nay givers.

Box, charity, donation, islamic, mosque icon - Download on Iconfinder

 25th of Adar – he opens the שופר, counts the coins and if needed, exchanges them for gold coins. He chooses a local carrier שליח to make his way up to ירושלים to deliver it to the גזברים. They in turn place all the incoming שקלים in a large שופר.

Rosh Chodesh Nisan, the first batch is used by the גזברים to purchase animals to be used on that day. (We will learn later on about this process).

5 – If the שליח loses the coins or if he is robbed the question is ‘whose coins’ were lost or stolen? The donor’s or הקדש?

Generally, it would depend on when the loss or robbery occurred. Prior to Rosh Chodesh Nisan, then we view them, since they were never delivered to the גזבר, as still belonging to the donors. The שליח, since he is (generally) a שומר חינם, does not need to pay but needs to swear to the ‘owners’ (the donors) that he was not negligent.

However, it becomes interesting if the שליח never made it to ירושלים by Rosh Chodesh Nisan. Say, he arrives on the 5th of Nissan and delivers the שקלים from this shtetl.

The גזברים, five days prior, on Rosh Chodesh Nisan, have  already spent some of the שקלים for their intended purpose – the purchasing of קרבנות.

Jewish Temple group launches Indiegogo campaign to breed sacred cow - Jewish Telegraphic Agency

So the big question is: Did their spending also include the שקלים (that didn’t arrive yet) that are in transit? Or even better – Did their spending also include the שקלים that are not in transit but will eventually (throughout the year) arrive in ירושלים?

There are different opinions on this but the הלכה is that all שקלים that will eventually arrive are included in the first תרומה by the גזברים on Rosh Chodesh Nisan.

א”ר יוסטי ב”ר סימון אתיא כמ”ד תורמין על הגבוי ועל העתיד לגבות

 As the Rambam (Shkolim 2, 9) writes ‘It’s as if all the שקלים arrived’.

כשהוא תורם מתכוין לתרום על הגבוי שיש בלשכה. ועל הגבוי שעדיין לא הגיע ללשכה. ועל העתיד לגבות כדי שיהיו אלו השקלים שהוציאן להסתפק מהן כפרה על ישראל וכאילו הגיעו כל שקליהן ללשכה ונתרמה מהן תרומה זו:

 It therefore follows, that if the שליח lost the שקלים or was robbed after Rosh Chodesh Nisan, since the גזברים had in mind all the שקלים (both – the ones in transit and even the ones that still need to be pledged and shipped to ירושלים) the שקלים in the pocket of the שליח belong to הקדש.

This will now change the direction of the שבועה of the שליח to the גזברין.

6 – We concluded with the story of חנניה, מישאל ועזריה, the decree to bow down to a צלם and being thrown into an oven and survived.

They took the cue to be מוסר נפש from the צפרדעים.

What was the story with the צפרדעים?

The frogs were in fact commanded to jump in the king’s palace, his bedrooms, beds, slave quarters, Egyptian homes, ovens and silos.

It says so in the posuk:

וְשָׁרַ֣ץ הַיְאֹר֘ צְפַרְדְּעִים֒ וְעָלוּ֙ וּבָ֣אוּ בְּבֵיתֶ֔ךָ וּבַֽחֲדַ֥ר מִשְׁכָּֽבְךָ֖ וְעַל-מִטָּתֶ֑ךָ וּבְבֵ֤ית עֲבָדֶ֨יךָ֙ וּבְעַמֶּ֔ךָ וּבְתַנּוּרֶ֖יךָ וּבְמִשְׁאֲרוֹתֶֽיךָ:

Yes,  they were commanded as a group of frogs, but not each individual frog.

The individual frogs which jumped in the oven did not say “let the other frog jump in the oven”. They jumped in the oven and did not leave it for someone else to be  מוסר נפש

So חנניה, מישאל ועזריה did not learn מסירת נפש from the frogs – for that they did not need the frogs.

They (unlike Daniel who escaped prior to the decree) learned from the frogs that although no one frog in particular was ordered to jump into the oven and perish, someone needed to do so.

They made a kal-vchomer:  the frogs which do not have מצוה of  ‘ קידוש ה, so readily jumped in the oven, how much more should we!

Of Frogs and Teachers | Peter M. Schloss, J.D. - Mediator.

Interestingly,  for this the frogs were actually spared, as the posuk says : וַיַּ֥עַשׂ יְהֹוָ֖ה כִּדְבַ֣ר משֶׁ֑ה וַיָּמֻ֨תוּ֙ הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִ֔ים מִן־הַבָּתִּ֥ים מִן־הַֽחֲצֵרֹ֖ת וּמִן־הַשָּׂדֹֽת: – the ones in houses and fields died, but not the ones who went in the ovens!

SeeTosfos in Pesochim 53b.

.מה ראו חנניה מישאל ועזריה. פ”ה מה ראו שלא דרשו וחי בהם ולא שימות בהן וקשה דהא בפרהסיא הוה ומסקינן בסנהדרין (דף עד.) דלכולי עלמא בפרהסיא חייב למסור עצמו אפילו אמצוה קלה.

ומפר”ת דצלם זה שעשה נבוכדנצר לאו ע”ז הוה אלא אינדרטא שעשה לכבוד עצמו ולכך קאמר מה ראו וכן משמע מדכתיב לאלהך לית אנחנא פלחין ולצלם דדהבא לא נסגוד משמע דאלהא דידיה וצלמא תרי מילי נינהו ואתי נמי שפיר הא דאמרינן באלו נערות (כתובות לג:) אלמלי נגדו לחנניה מישאל ועזריה פלחו לצלמא ואי ע”ז הוה ח”ו שהיו משתחוים לו ומיהו לשון פלחו לא אתי שפיר.

ור”י מפרש מה ראו שלא ברחו שהרי קודם המעשה היו יכולים לברוח כמו שעשה דניאל כדאמר בחלק (סנהדרין צג.) ג’ היו באותה עצה:

We mentioned the Jewish quip as to why the צפרדעים were not rewarded for posterity like the dogs who were didn’t bark during יציאת מצרים.

Shiur Shkolim 4b (2) 01/02/2024

BS”D

Shkolim 4b (2)

Teves 21, 5784. January 2, 2024

Short notes on topics discussed this week.

1 – מעשר בהמה when the animal is owned by partners.

2 – The concept of an estate of a deceased, as a self standing entity prior to the distribution of the assets.

3 – Assets of an estate that are divided. Does each recipient really receive ‘his part of the estate’ (יש ברירה) or does each recipient ‘buy’ a part of the estate (אין ברירה).

Dividing The Estate: A Review - The Plaza Theatre, Inc.

4 – משה רבינו.

A- He was a נביא.

וְלֹא קָם נָבִיא עוֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר יְדָעוֹ יְהוָה פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים.

ז אדר- הילולת משה רבנו זיע"א! כמה דברים על משה רבנו: - תיקון הכללי- האתר הרשמי

 

From the יג עיקרים- 

 אֲנִי מַאֲמִין בֶּאֱמוּנָה שְׁלֵמָה. שֶׁנְּבוּאַת מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם הָיְתָה אֲמִתִּית. וְשֶׁהוּא הָיָה אָב לַנְּבִיאִים. לַקּוֹדְמִים לְפָנָיו וְלַבָּאִים אַחֲרָיו:

B- Was he a כהן גדול?

There is a discussion about this in זבחים קא, א. Bottom line is that for the days of the מילואים he definitely was considered a כהן גדול and his children were not כהנים.

As to the 40 years in the מדבר there is a מחלוקת. According to the opinion that he was a כהן גדול he was allowed to do the עבודה whenever he wanted.

C- Was he considered a מלך?

מלך ליום אחד | גיפטוש

The answer, as per the גמרא above, is yes, but his children didn’t inherit the מלוכה. It stopped with him and there was no king for hundreds of years after משה until  the coronation of שאול המלך.

5 – We mentioned an original idea of the מהר”ל דיסקין (mentioned in previous shiurim)

המהרי"ל דיסקין - פורום אוצר החכמה

The גמרא says that משה actually asked for מלכות when he approached the סנה but his request was denied.

As per the גמרא this request and refusal does not say explicitly in the חומש.

Moses Burning Bush Images – Browse 600 Stock Photos, Vectors, and Video | Adobe Stock

The מהר”ל דיסקין suggest that the words at the first encounter of משה at the סנה hints to this conversation.

וּמֹשֶׁה הָיָה רֹעֶה אֶת צֹאן יִתְרוֹ חֹתְנוֹ כֹּהֵן מִדְיָן וַיִּנְהַג אֶת הַצֹּאן אַחַר הַמִּדְבָּר וַיָּבֹא אֶל הַר הָאֱלֹהִים חֹרֵבָה.

וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהֹוָה אֵלָיו בְּלַבַּת אֵשׁ מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה הַסְּנֶה בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וְהַסְּנֶה אֵינֶנּוּ אֻכָּל.

וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אָסֻרָה נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת הַמַּרְאֶה הַגָּדֹל הַזֶּה מַדּוּעַ לֹא יִבְעַר הַסְּנֶה.

וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי סָר לִרְאוֹת וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו אֱלֹהִים מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי.

וַיֹּאמֶר אַל תִּקְרַב הֲלֹם שַׁל נְעָלֶיךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶיךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עוֹמֵד עָלָיו אַדְמַת קֹדֶשׁ הוּא.

Now this last פסוק is telling משה to take his shoes off because the area is holy.

שטיח כניסה "של נעליך מעל רגליך" אפור | אקססוריז לבית | בית | מרמלדה מרקט

But it starts with ‘don’t come close’ and only then ‘remove your shoes’.

What is the ‘don’t come close’? Why not ‘just remove your shoes’?

It seems to say that ‘move back a bit and remove your shoes because where you are now is holy ground’

Suggests the מהר”ל דיסקין:the following:

משה רבינו was 80 years old at the time.

The גמרא says in חולין כד ב that the sign of a healthy and young person is one that can take off his shoes and tie them while standing on one foot.

Tying your shoes while balancing on one leg... - YouTube

It adds that only  רבי חנינא , despite being 80, was able to perform this acrobatic feat while on one foot. He attributed it to his mother pampering him with olive oil.

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Thus, משה, being told that he should remove his shoes wanted to sit down where he was standing to remove them. However, the area of the סנה, he was told, is אַדְמַת קֹדֶשׁ הוּא. It has the same קדושה of the עזרה of the בית המקדש where sitting is prohibited for all, except מלכי בית דוד.

So משה’s was asking to be granted  מלכות for himself and his descendants to achieve the status like מלכי בית דוד which would grant him the right to sit down on this אַדְמַת קֹדֶשׁ הוּא.

No photo description available.

He is told וַיֹּאמֶר אַל תִּקְרַב הֲלֹם meaning that I hear your request and it is not granted. Your מלכות is limited just to you, not you your descendants, (like דוד המלך). Therefore אַל תִּקְרַב הֲלֹם, ‘move back, sit down and then remove your shoes’.

6- We discussed two footnotes to the above.

A- Doesn’t is say that משה רבינו did not lose any of his strength until the day he passed away? וּמֹשֶׁה בֶּן מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה בְּמֹתוֹ לֹא כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא נָס לֵחֹה.

Perhaps it means that whatever strength he had at the age of 80 didn’t diminish until his last day.

B- The גמרא says ‘the ability to remove and tie his shoes.

The question: Does not tying come first?

The Rambam (OH 5, 7) indeed writes tying and removing’!

1,645 Removing Shoes Stock Photos, High-Res Pictures, and Images - Getty Images

We mentioned the answer of Reb Levi’k on this last question.

 

 

 

 

Shiur Shkolim 4b 12/26/23

BS”D

Shkolim 4b

Teves 14, 5784. December 26, 2023

1 – The גמרא concludes with a source for the opinion of ריש לקיש that no donation for the בית המקדש in whatever form may ever be accepted from a גוי.

וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם זְרֻבָּבֶל וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּשְׁאָר רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא לָכֶם וָלָנוּ לִבְנוֹת בַּיִת לֵאלֹהֵינוּ כִּי אֲנַחְנוּ יַחַד נִבְנֶה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּנוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ כּוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרָס.

2 – We discussed the topic of accepting צדקה from a גוי.
Here are the places in Shulchan Aruch where it seems quite clear that it is prohibited.

רנט ד
and:
רנד א ב

There are of course solid sources that allow it under certain circumstances.

We mentioned the famous חסיד of the צמח צדק, Reb Eliyaho Yosef Rivlin, who authored a ספר that is considered the basis for all discussions on this topic.

Starts here in his אוהלי יוסף  ספר.

3 – We continued with the קלבון.

Basically, there are two reason for adding this extra small amount.
According to Reb Meir it is מדאורייתא, since משה רבינו was shown a מטבע של אש one needs to be certain that his מחצית השקל is a full half of a שקל.

Israeli Preteen Discovers Rare Silver Coin Minted During Jewish Revolt Against Rome | Smart News| Smithsonian Magazine

When a שקל is minted there is a chance that the weight of the metal is not a full שקלs worth of silver. Ditto for a half a שקל. Thus, one needs to add a קלבון, another small coin that is a 1/12 of a מחצית השקל.

On the other hand, the opinion of the חכמים is that the reason for the קלבון is a fee for the transaction. It is paid to either the שולחני or the גזבר of הקדש for exchanging a full שקל for two halves.

Changing money in Jerusalem - Where will you get the most Shekels

4 – We returned back to the topic of the כותים and the expression of the גמרא in Chulin 6a that they were declared as “non-Jews”. See Shiur Shkolim 3b (3) – Chanukah – 12/12/23.

The Chasam Sofer takes issue with this idea of proclaiming someone as a גוי!

A photo collection of 'GOY' license plates spotted by Marshall Weiss. (Courtesy)

Now, as per the שולחן ערוך, this proclamation was only לחומרא, meaning that after the proclamation if a כותי touches wine we considered this wine as if a גוי touched it. That’s לחומרא.

However, לקולא, we still consider them יהודים. So say, for example, if a woman, after the proclamation accepted קידושין from a כותי, she would require a גט.

However, according to the Rambam, the כותים are considered גויים ממש, even לקולא. The obvious question is where do the חכמים get this power to change the religious status of a person.

שומרונים – ויקיפדיה

See here the Tosfos Yom Tov (7, 4) who also asks this question.

[Parenthetically we asked why he doesn’t mention the גמרא about the עשרת השבטים where a similar edict was issued, Yevamos 17a].

5 – The Chasam Sofer answers that the source for this authority come from our גמרא on 3a.
The גמרא there brings as a source for הפקר בית דין הפקר a פסוק.
וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָבוֹא לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת הַיָּמִים כַּעֲצַת הַשָּׂרִים וְהַזְּקֵנִים יָחֳרַם כָּל רְכוּשׁוֹ.
That means that בית דין can impound private assets.
The end of the פסוק is even more powerful:
וְהוּא יִבָּדֵל מִקְּהַל הַגּוֹלָה.
‘And he will be ousted from כלל ישראל’.
This means, as per the Chasam Sofer, that בית דין can actually pronounce an individual or community as non Jewish!

6 – We concluded by going back to the topic of why רבי didn’t create a מסכת חנוכה.

We mentioned the עדות ביהוסף and his original idea that מגילת תענית is actually מסכת חנוכה and there was no need for רבי to rewrite it.

He offers another reason based on the story of the destruction of the community in Alexandria which we encountered in Suka 51b.
The Yerushalmi adds to the story as to what caused King Tarchinus (In Sukkah it is Alexander the Great) to annihilate this thriving community.

Ancient Synagogue of Alexandria

In short: King Tarchinus’s son was born on Tisha B’Ov and passed away on Chanukah.  Someone informed the king that upon his son’s birth Jews were in mourning and upon his death they celebrated!

This caused the king to annihilate the community of Alexandria.
Thus, Chanukah was practiced under the radar.

Alexander the Great kneeling before Shimon HaTzaddik - 1920

Alexander kneeling before Shimon Hatzadik – Yuma, 69a

Accordingly רבי didn’t want to publicize חנוכה by creating a separate מסכת!

Here is the Yerushalmi :
תַּנֵּי רִבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי: בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת הוּזְהָרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא לָשׁוּב אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, {שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:}ג כִּי אֲשֶׁר רְאִיתֶם אֶת מִצְרַיִם הַיּוֹם לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ לִרְאוֹתָם עוֹד עַד עוֹלָם, וַי״י אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תוֹסִיפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד, וֶהֱשִׁיבְךָ י״י מִצְרַיִם בָּאֳנִיּוֹת. וּבִשְׁלָשְׁתָּן חָזְרוּ וּבִשְׁלָשְׁתָּן נָפְלוּ: אַחַת בִּמֵי סַנְחֵרִיב מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר, {שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:}ד הוֹי הַיֹּרְדִים מִצְרַיִם לְעֶזְרָה, מַה כְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ: וּמִצְרַיִם אָדָם וְלֹא אֵל וְסוּסֵיהֶם בָּשָׂר וגו׳. וְאַחַת בִּימֵי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן קָרֵחַ, וְהָיְתָה הַחֶרֶב אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יְרֵיאִים מִמֶּנָּה שָׁם תַּשִּׂיג אֶתְכֶם וגו׳. וְאַחַת בִּימֵי טְרוֹגְייָנוּס הָרָשָׁע*.
(ו) נוֹלַד לוֹ בֶן בְתִשְׁעָה בְאַב וְהָיוּ מִתְעַנִּין. מֵת בִּתּוֹ בַחֲנוכָּה וְהִדְלִיקוּ נֵירוֹת. שָׁלְחָה אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאָמְרָה לוֹ: עַד שֶׁאַתְּ מְכַבֵּשׁ אֶת הַבַּרְבָּרִיִּים, בוֹא וּכְבִישׁ אֶת הַיְּהוּדִים שֶׁמָּרְדוּ בָךְ. חָשֵׁב מֵיתֵי לַעֲשָׂרָה יוֹמִין וַאֲתָא לַחֲמִשָּׁה. אֲתַא וָאַשְׁכַּחוֹן עֲסִיקִין {בְּאוֹרַייְתָא בִּפְסוּקָא}ה יִשָּׂא י״י עָלֶיךָ גּוֹי מֵרָחֹק מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וגו׳. אֲמַר לוֹן: מַה הֲוִיתוֹן עֲסִיקִין. אָמְרוֹן לֵיהּ: הָכֵין וָכֵן. אֲמַר לוֹן: הַהוּא גַבְרָא הוּא דַחֲשַׁב מֵיתֵי לַעֲשָׂרָה יוֹמִין וַאֲתָא לַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְהִקִּיפָן לִיגְיוֹנוֹת וְהָרְגָן. אֲמַר לִנְשֵׁיהֶן: נִשְׁמָעוֹת אַתֶּם לְלִיגְיוֹנוֹתַיי וְאֵין אֲנִי הוֹרֵג אֶתְכֶם. אָמְרוֹן לֵיהּ: מַה דְעַבְדַּת בָּאֲרַעִייָא עֲבִיד בְּעִילִייָא. וְעִירֵב דָּמָן בְּדָמָן וְהָלַךְ הַדָּם בַּיָּם עַד קִיפְּרוֹס. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה נִגְדְּעָה קֶרֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעוֹד אֵינָהּ עֲתִידָה לַחְזוֹר לִמְקוֹמָהּ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא בֶּן דָּוִד.

*Perhaps Trajan, Taanis 18b, and Jastrow