Shiur Sukkah 41b 08/09/2022

BSD

Suka 41b

Menachem Av13, 5782. August9,, 2022the 

1- We continued the topic of חדש and the two opinions of when one can begin eating חדש when there is no Beis Hamikdash. Either on the 16 of Nisan or the 17th. 

The Omer Offering - Emor Art - Parshah

[Any produce that took root after that time is prohibited to be eaten until next year פסח]. 

2- The next Mishnah – what people did when Sukkos occurred on Shabbos. 

יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, כָּל הָעָם מוֹלִיכִין אֶת לוּלְבֵיהֶן לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת. לַמָּחֳרָת מַשְׁכִּימִין וּבָאִין, כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מַכִּיר אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ, וְנוֹטְלוֹ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג בְּלוּלָבוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ. וּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הֶחָג, אָדָם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּלוּלָבוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ:

A pile of black hats of the same style worn by Lubavitch Hasidic Jews in Crown Heights Brooklyn, New York Stock Photo - Alamy

each one recognized which one was his…

3- Our Gemara suggests a פסוק that says that ‘every individual needs to take the ד׳ מינים’. 

We discussed the Meiri and others that question the need for a פסוק. How else would this מצוה be performed if not by everyone individually? The ד׳ מינים’ is a מצוה שבגופו and one cannot make a shliach. Neither can one be יוצא through someone else. 

The classic answer given is that without the פסוק we would think that it is a Mitzva on the Beis Din. Just as the blowing of the Shofar on Yom Kippur in the year of יובל. 

Jubilee – Focus Online

We went back and forth trying to understand why we would think so. וצ״ע. 

4 – 

There was an incident involving Rabban Gamliel, and Rabbi Yehoshua, and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, and Rabbi Akiva, who were all traveling on a ship during the festival of Sukkot and only Rabban Gamliel had a lulav, which he had bought for one thousand zuz. Rabban Gamliel took it and fulfilled his obligation with it and then gave it to Rabbi Yehoshua as a gift. Rabbi Yehoshua took it and fulfilled his obligation with it and gave it to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya as a gift. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya took it and fulfilled his obligation with it and gave it to Rabbi Akiva as a gift. Rabbi Akiva took it and fulfilled his obligation with it and returned it to Rabban Gamliel.

Rabban Gamaliel(רבן גמליﭏ)

Rabban Gamliel from the Sarajevo Haggadah

כִּי הָא דְּאָמַר רָבָא: ״הֵא לְךָ אֶתְרוֹג זֶה עַל מְנָת שֶׁתַּחְזִירֵהוּ לִי״. נְטָלוֹ וְיָצָא בּוֹ, הֶחְזִירוֹ — יָצָא, לֹא הֶחְזִירוֹ — לֹא יָצָא.

5- מתנה על מנת להחזיר- a conditional gift where the recipient must/will eventually give back the item. Halachically, it is considered ‘his’ now, if he returns it later. 

תלמוד ישראלי - בעל: אני בבית! והבאתי לך מתנה! אשה: תודה! מה קנית לי? בעל: סמארטפון חדש... אבל את מחזירה לי אותו כן? אשה: מה?! --- "מתנה על מנת להחזיר" – יש

 

On the 1st day of Sukkos [in Eretz Yisrael and the first two days of Sukkos in the Diaspora as will be explained next] one only fulfills his obligation with a set of Daled Minim which he personally owns. Therefore when using someone else’s Lulav one must receive it as a present on condition to return. Thus the giver should explicitly say to the recipient “It is a present on condition you return it”. If this was not explicitly said and rather the Daled Minim were simply given to the person without mentioning anything, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. If however the receiver did not know the law that he must own the Daled Minim then he has not fulfilled his obligation and is to be given it again as a present on condition to return.

Every child knows this concept. But what it means and how it works is a big topic. 

What is the status of the item when it is with the receiver? 100% his? What effect does the condition have on this ‘temporary ownership’. How is this different from borrowing?

We scratched the surface beginning with the Rosh who says that it is an absolute sale and the receiver must gift it back to the giver. It does not happen automatically. The condition, that he must return it, is a ‘side’ issue that does not weaken the 100%  ownership. 

Sukkah 43: My Lulav Is Better Than Yours | Torah In Motion

[Thus a child, who can receive a gift but cannot not gift it, would have a problem using מתנה על מנת להחזיר]

If he doesn’t specify that it’s an outright gift and that he will need to ‘re-acquire’ it back, but just says ‘it’s yours until you are done and then it simply goes back to me’ – that is not a מתנה, but שאלה

 The Ketzos (241, 4), in one of his famous pieces, argues and says that no קנין is necessary when returning it to the giver.

A מתנה על מנת להחזיר works to be considered 100% owned by the receiver because such ‘a gift is for a set amount of time’. When the time is up, it reverts back to the giver automatically. 

As opposed to loaning where the only thing loaned is the usage. Not the actual item. 

6 – We learnt the text of the Tosfos that discusses a communal Esrog. The issue is that if members of the Kehila participate in the purchase of the Esrog then it is a partnership. It is not a proper לכם. 

Growing Etrogs Down Under - Tablet Magazine

Tosfos suggest that every member of the Kehila understand that he needs to gift it to every individual when this individual uses it on the first day of Yom Tov via a מתנה על מנת להחזיר.  

7 – We discussed מתנה על מנת להחזיר by פדיון הבן which does not work. YD 305, 8

The question is if one is allowed to ask the כהן to return the silver coins. 

 

Shiur Sukkah 41a 08/02/22

BS”D

Sukkah 41a

Menachem Av 5, 5782. August 2, 2022

1 – We began a new Mishna that discusses the Mitzva of נטילת ד’ מינים. 

At the דאורייתא level:

  • In the מקדש the Mitzva is on all 7 days of Sukkos. 
  • Anywhere outside the מקדש, in the מדינה, the Mitzva is only on the first day of Sukkos. 

הר הבית חדשות - סוכות - המקדש מקום השמחה

After the חורבן, it was Reb Yochanon ben Zakai that instituted that the Mitzvah of the Daled Minim is on all 7 days זכר למקדש. 

So today, on the first day of Sukkos the מצווה is Min Hatorah. On the following 6 days it is only מדרבנן. 

2 – We discussed the famous מחלוקת as to the definition of  מקדש and מדינה. According to Rashi, מקדש  is only the actually area of the בית המקדש. Anywhere outside of the בית המקדש is considered מדינה. 

What Did the Beit Hamikdash Look Like? - Jewish Action

The Rambam disagrees. His opinion is that all of ירושלים is considered מקדש. Meaning that in all of ירושלים, the ד’ מינים was obligatory on all 7 days מן התורה. 

 

3 – Now, after the חורבן, when no one is in the מקדש area, everyone is in the מדינה, only the first day of Sukkos the מצווה is מן התורה. The other days it are only מדרבנן. 

But the Rambam says that the entire Yerusholayim is מקדש! 

בית המקדש - תמונטיב - ייצור ושיווק תמונות יהדות לבית ולעסק

Discussed the opinion of the ביכורי יעקב (OC 658, 7) that he sees no reason, according to the Ramabam, for anyone living in ירושלים, why this מצוה is not applicable all 7 days  מן התורה even today! 

ומי שזוכה לדור בירושלים עיה”ק תוב”ב, יכוון לקיים מצות נטילת לולב כל ז’ בספק אי מדאורייתא אי מדרבנן

He even suggests that one that lives in ירושלים and therefore his נטילת הד’ מינים, is מן התורה, he should have in mind that he is מקיים a Mitzva דאורייתא!!!

See here. Others disagree.

4 – Discussed why, if the 6 days of Sukkos the ד’ מינים is only זכר למקדש, we don’t say a הרחמן הוא יחזיר לנו ….. as we say after ספירת העומר. 

Also touched on the topic of זכר לחורבן and the חתם סופר about perhaps not building homes from stone/bricks since it shows that we plan to be in גלות for a long time.  

Jewish Painting: Jewish life in Shtetl - Alex Levin

5- We read the Tosfos that quotes the famous Gemara that one can bring קרבנות even if there is no בית המקדש. So in theory if one would build a מזבח on  the הר הבית at the correct location, קרבנות could be brought.

מקריבין אף על פי שאין בית

Historically, this served as a rallying point to some to attempt to build a מזבח and perform עבודת הקרבנות. It’s a big topic and BL”N will go back to it in the future. 

Rabbi Hirsch Kalischer - Thorn - The Edythe Griffinger Portal

6- We mentioned Reb Tzvi Hirsh Kalisher, a talmid of R Akiva Eiger, and one of the earliest frum Rabbonim that proclaimed a movement to return to ארץ ישראל, with the belief that to start the  גאולה we should not wait for Moshiach or another miraculous phenomenon. 

Incidentally, the ערוך לנר, mentioned earlier (ביכורי יעקב), was opposed to the effort.

This of course is the root of religious Zionism that קיבוץ גלויות will occur in stages. Needless to say that this runs contrary to the Rambam and all others that קיבוץ גלויות will happen after the building of the בית המקדש. 

We read the ירושלמי (Brochos 1) that says של ישראל קמעא קמעא.  גאולתן . ‘The redemption of Jews will be incremental’. 

ר’ חייא בר אבא ור’ שמעון בן חלפתא היו מהלכין בקרוצתא [=בעלות השחר] בהדא בקעתא דארבאל,

וראו אילת השחר שבקע אורה לעלות,

אמר לו ר’ חייא: כך היא גאולתן של ישראל,

אמר לו ר’ שמעון: היינו דכתיב “כי אשב בחשך ה’ אור לי” (מיכה ז’, ח),

בתחלה היא באה קימעא קימעא, ואחר כך היא מנפצת ובאה, ואחר כך היא פרה ורבה, ואחר כך היא משתבחת והולכת.

Parenthetically, the Rebbe writes that ‘surely the Rambam also knew of this Yerushalmi’ and yet codified as above. 

7- We discussed the Rashi in our Gemara that states that the 3rd Beis Hamikdash will not be built by humans but will descend from heaven. 

Original Painting of a Dream Jerusalem Temple That Comes in - Etsy

In many other sources it says explicitly that it will be built by humans. 

Mentioned the various approaches that suggest how both methods are true and will occur simultaneously. 

8- Story with Reb Yoel ע”ה – with R Yosef Karo and the introduction to מגיד מישרים, regarding not eating meat on Rosh Hashanah.

His point was: ‘if you can accept that the Beis Yosef forgot a גמרא, you can also accept that the מלאך can forget it as well….. and come to the conclusion that perhaps קודשא בריך הוא himself forgot it….!’ 

How R' Yoel Marked 90th Birthday

 

 

 

Shiur Sukkah 40b 07/19/2022

BSD

Suka 40b

Tammuz 20, 5782. July 19th, 2022

1- The Shiur was about the general practice of פדיון and חילול. 

Pesachim Comes to a Close | Torah In Motion

We spoke about this interesting process and why it works with some items and others not. 

For example – fruits of מעשר שני can be ‘transferred’ to cash. תרומה and מעשר cannot.

Cash Exchange at Street Fruit Stand Stock Image - Image of accept, business: 31458923

The קדושה of an animal designated for a קרבן cannot be transferred, but if has a blemish and was donated to בדק הבית it can be sold and the proceeds become הקדש. 

בדק הבית | tefilalemoshe.org

2- We mentioned the interesting Halacha on the process of redeeming הקדש. Say someone living in South Dakota, donates a bracelet to הקדש. It can be to his Shul or בזמן הבית towards בדק הבית. 

Donations Stock Illustrations – 4,580 Donations Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart - Dreamstime

The   גבאים of the Shul or הקדש opt to sell the bracelet and use the cash for whatever is needed in the Shul or בית המקדש. The process is that it needs first to be appraised properly, a value established and then sold. העמדה והערכה.

Jewish Temple group launches Indiegogo campaign to breed sacred cow - Jewish Telegraphic Agency

What if the donor insists that his gift not be sold now but rather during the gift giving holiday season where a better price can be obtained? Or if הקדש wants to send this bracelet to LA where a higher price can be fetched for it? In both scenarios הקדש will gain. 

The Mishna in ערכין says (6, 5 ) that אֵין לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ אֶלָּא מְקוֹמוֹ וְשַׁעְתּוֹ. Meaning that the appraisal and sale of such items must to be done on location and time of the appraisal. The reason is that any delay may cause it never to be done. 

היו בנכסים בהמה ועבדים ומרגליות ואמרו התגרים אם ילקח לעבד זה כסות בשלשים משבח הוא מאה. ופרה זאת אם ימתינו בה לאטלס משבחת עשרה. ומרגלית זו אם מעלין אותה למקום פלוני תשוה ממון רב וכאן אינה שוה אלא מעט. אין שומעין להן. אלא כיצד עושין מוכרין הכל במקומו ובשעתו כמה שהוא שנאמר ונתן את הערכך ביום ההוא קדש לה’ לרבות כל דבר של הקדש שאין מפרכסין אותו ואין ממתינין בו לשוק ולא מוליכין אותו ממקום למקום אין להקדש אלא מקומו ושעתו:

Rambam Erchin 3, 19. 

 

How To Add Multiple Clocks and Timezones To Your Windows 10 PC - Dignited

3 – In regards to שביעית פירות we know that it can be transferred to money or another food item.

The two process that work on הקדש are:

A-  Simple חילול/ transfer.  ‘May the קדושה of this object (that is )קודש, be transferred to this object’. The קודש object becomes חולין and the חולין object now becomes קודש. 

7,769 Barter Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | Shutterstock

B- A sale of the an object that is קודש. The buyer pays the הקדש. The money becomes הקדש and the object becomes חולין. 

The dispute in our גמרא between Reb Elazar and Reb Yochanan is what process works with פירות שביעית for this transfer to take effect. Only thru a sale or also with a simple in-house חילול. 

4- Our Gemara has sharp words for one that does business with פירות שביעית. Rashi writes that in ערכין,      

(30, b) the full version appears. See below. 

5- We mentioned the vort quoted by Reb Elchanan, explaining the comparison of שביעית  to הקדש, that he heard from יהושע זעליג  from Klimovitch

(More about Klimovitch here and here.

קובץ שיעורים ח”ב, כ. 

 

צבי הירש ליפשיץ
בנו זעליג ליפשיץ. תלמיד ר”ח

—————————————————

From Sefaria :

As Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says in explanation of the juxtaposition of several passages in the Torah (Leviticus, chapter 25): Come and see how severe is even the hint of violation of the prohibition of the Sabbatical Year, as the prohibition against engaging in commerce with produce of the Sabbatical Year is not one of the primary prohibitions of the Sabbatical Year, and yet its punishment is harsh.

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, continues: If a person has commercial dealings with produce of the Sabbatical Year or of the Jubilee Year, ultimately he will become so poor that he will be compelled to sell his movable property, as it is stated: “In this Jubilee Year you shall return every man to his possession” (Leviticus 25:13), and it is written in the subsequent verse: “And if you sell something to your neighbor or buy from your neighbor’s hand,” which is referring to an item acquired by passing it from hand to hand. The juxtaposition of the two verses indicates that if one violates the halakhot of the Jubilee Year or the Sabbatical Year, he will eventually have to sell his movable property.

If he does not feel remorse and he does not repent, ultimately he will be compelled to sell his fields, as it is stated in an adjacent verse: “If your brother becomes poor and sells part of his ancestral land” (Leviticus 25:25).

If consciousness of his sins does not come to him, ultimately he will be compelled to sell his house, as it is stated: “And if a man sells a dwelling house in a walled city” (Leviticus 25:29). The Gemara asks: What is different there, in the previous clause, where the tanna says that the sinner does not sense remorse, and what is different here, where he says that consciousness of his sins does not come to him? The Gemara responds: This is in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: Once a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it is permitted to him.

The Gemara asks: Can it enter your mind to say that it is actually permitted to him because he has transgressed twice? Rather, say that it becomes as though it were permitted to him, that is, after transgressing the prohibition twice he becomes accustomed to this behavior and no longer feels that it is a sin. If one transgresses the prohibition only once, he is apt to feel remorse. Once he repeats his transgression, he loses this sensibility concerning his sins and will no longer feel any remorse.

 Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, continues: If consciousness of his sins does not come to him, ultimately he will be compelled to borrow with interest, as it is stated: “And if your brother becomes poor and his means fail with you, then you shall uphold him” (Leviticus 25:35), and it is written in the subsequent verse: “You shall take no interest or increase from him.”

One does not come to borrow with interest until he has already been compelled to sell his daughter, as it is stated: “And when a man sells his daughter as a maidservant” (Exodus 21:7). The Gemara explains: And even though his daughter is not mentioned in that context in Leviticus, nevertheless, a person prefers to sell his daughter and not to borrow money with interest. This is because there, when one sells his daughter, the sum required in order to redeem her continuously decreases, while here, where one borrows with interest, his debt continuously increases. One may therefore assume that if one borrows with interest, he has already sold his daughter.

If consciousness of his sins does not come to him, ultimately he will be compelled to sell himself, as it is stated: “And when your brother becomes poor with you and sells himself to you” (Leviticus 25:39). Not only will he be sold to you, a born Jew; rather, he will even be sold to a stranger, as it is stated: “And sells himself to the stranger” (Leviticus 25:47). And not only to a stranger who is a convert, but even to a gentile who resides in Eretz Yisrael and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot [ger toshav], as it is stated: “And sells himself to a ger toshav with you” (Leviticus 25:47).

 When the verse further states: “Or to the offshoot of a stranger’s family,” this is referring to the gentile relatives of a ger toshav, who are idolaters. When it says: “Or to the offshoot [le’eker] of a stranger’s family,” this is referring to one who is sold and becomes a servant to idol worship itself, i.e., he is put to work in a temple dedicated to idolatry. In any event, the baraita teaches that it is only due to an individual’s sins that he reaches such a low point that he must sell himself as a slave. If so, the verses dealing with a Hebrew slave should be interpreted in a stringent manner, so that the slave cannot easily be redeemed.

ציון במשפט תפדה ושביה בצדקה 

 

Shiur 40a 07/12/2022

BSD

Suka 40a 

Tamuz 13, 5782. July 12th, 2022

Purchasing ד’ מינים  in the שמיטה year.

1- Our Gemara, after explaining of why buying the ד’ מינים needs to be transacted in a particular way, discusses if the שביעית issue pertains only to the  Esrog (a fruit/vegetable) or the Lulav (basically wood) as well. 

2- The general question is if wood harvested during שמיטה has קדושת שביעית .

It would seem from the חומש’s wording that the produce of שביעית are הפקר for all לאכלה, to eat, that the intention is to exclude items from the field that are not edible, such as firewood. 

Image of Old Coconut Leaf Stems Are Dried For Firewood-EM727622-Picxy

But the פסוק adds לכם לאכלה. The לכם is adding more than just edible foods into the category of פירות שביעית.  

So our Gemara suggests that if using wood in a manner that is similar to food usage/consumption, then שביעית would apply to it as well. 

Can You Burn Bamboo? Is Bamboo Good Firewood?

What does similar mean? When eating food, the consumption and enjoyment occur simultaneously. The food is swallowed (ביעור) and enjoyed at the time. 

Premium Photo | Cooking in the forestjungle barbecue with open fire in the middle of a asian bamboo forrest

When using wood for warmth, the wood too is burned and the heat produced and enjoyed simultaneously. 

So designating wood for heating would label the wood with קדושת שביעית since it is similar to edible food.  

No More Heating With Firewood In New York?

 

However, as per Rashi, using firewood to bake, for example, the wood is first consumed (turned into coal) and only then does the baking (enjoyment/usage) occur. 

Bread Baking Open Firewood Oven Stock Photo 102854579 | Shutterstock

We mentioned that רבינו חננאל does not differentiate between cooking and baking. The Ritva adds that simply speaking, whether baking or cooking, the enjoyment of eating occurs after the wood is all gone!  

How to Properly Clean an Outdoor Pizza Oven (DIY) | Family Handyman

4- From the above it would seem that the לולב, just like firewood for baking, does not have קדושת שביעית. 

Broom palm High Resolution Stock Photography and Images - Alamy

But here is the clincher – a לולב is generally not used for firewood. The leaves of the palm tree are primarily used as brooms. So when does the consumption of a לולב (when used as a broom) occur? Simultaneously with the use and enjoyment – just like food and therefore a לולב does have קדושת שביעית. 

Natural palm leaf broom | Broom, Handmade broom, Brooms

https://dissolve.com/video/Close-view-Women-sweeping-street-twig-royalty-free-stock-video-footage/001-D159-26-250

5- The Gemara discusses a certain type of timber that is used as candles. The combustion and enjoyment happen at the same time with these wood-candles.  

Rocky Mountain Bushcraft: Wilderness Survival: How to make a Pine Knot Torch for emergency light

6 –  We read the uncommon words of Rashi about a version of the Gemara. Despite the fact that all his teachers used this particular נוסח, including Rabeinu Gershom מאור הגולה, ‘I have been attempting to understand this version since my youth without success’!!

We spoke about tobacco that has קדושת שביעית. See here:

https://beta.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=21452&st=&pgnum=216

Flowers see here:

7- We related the fascinating story and amazing turn of events of Reb Chaim Meir Bukiet and his parents הי”ד. 

Rabbi Chaim Meir Bukiet

ומסיימים בטוב

We also briefly mentioned Rabbi Bukiet’s son in law

Rabbi Yerachmiel (Shtul) Stillman

Shiur Sukkah 39b-40a 07/05/2022

BS”D

Sukkah 39b – 40a

Tamuz 6, 5782. July 5th, 2022

Some brief notes. 

1- We reviewed the issue of purchasing the ד’ מינים in the year of שמיטה and afterwards. Who to purchase from and how to designate the payment. 

איש האתרוגים: "אני עוסק בזה כל חיי, אני חולם על הפרי בלילה" | חדשות מעריב

 

tienda de frutos secos, Mahane Yehuda, Jerusalén, Israel | Jerusalem israel, Israel, Israel palestine

2- Continuing on the topic of doing business with פירות שביעית, we read the text of the Yerushalmi that if one prepares for a wedding and has שמיטה produce left over he may sell them as that is not considered ‘ordinary business’. 

What to Expect at a Sheva Brachot - The Jewish Wedding and Marriage

3- The designation of produce that begins to grow in one year but are picked in the next year. Fruits are identified and labeled by they year they blossom. Vegetable are identified by the year they are picked

19 Best Apple Tree Varieties (with a Guide to Flowering Groups) | Gardener's Path

The identity of an Esrog. Is it a fruit or vegetable? It grows on a tree, however, being a citrus tree it needs to be watered manually. (just like vegetables).   

Water Sprinkler Irrigation Under Lemon Tree Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Free Image. Image 77848810.

Mendel Nemanov sent this interesting link regarding whether a tomato is a fruit or vegetable:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nix_v._Hedden

4- We discussed the various levels of שמיטה observance. 

Starting at the top:

  1. Eating only imported fruits or vegetable.
  2. Buying from non-Jewish farmers.
  3. Otzar Beis Din
  4. Utilizing the היתר מכירה.

 

  1. כשרות - פאשה

https://www.israelnationalnews.com/news/309465

We discussed Reb Shlomo Zalman Ohrbach’s interesting query based on our Gemara. מנחת שלמה א, מד

Say someone keeps level 2, and buys produce only from Arabs, or level 3. Can he buy in the market from a stall that sells פירות שביעית at level 4? 

Afghans struggle to supplant poppies with fruit crops | Arab News

What is the issue? The buyer will treat them with קדושת שביעית. Is giving the money to someone that is at level 4 a problem? Is he, the seller, considered (to a level 2 guy) an עם הארץ that one is not permitted to give שביעית money? 

There’s more…

5- Our Gemara, to prove that the word מן can also mean food, quotes the פסוק from Daniel:

וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ.

The king allotted daily rations to them from the king’s food and from the wine he drank. They were to be educated for three years, and some of them at the end of which they were to enter the king’s service.

Daniel, Chananiah Mishael and Azaria in the court of the king

We discussed the story behind this פסוק and mentioned that perhaps this is the first time that non-Jews recognized the talents of Jews and elevated them to high positions in government.
Mentioned the often tragic result of this ר״ל. 

6- Mentioned that the Tur OC 428 uses this as a סימן as to when נצבים and וילך are separated into two פרשיות. So too writes the מחזור ויטרי!  See this shiur where we spoke about it.

    •  בג When Rosh Hashanah occurs on Monday or Tuesday
    • המלך Rosh Hashanah
    • פת פרשת וילך ומצבים is crumbled. Meaning split up. 

7- In connection to #3 above, that an Esrog being a citrus fruit that needs watering, we discussed the interesting fact that it was only about 150 years ago that the question of citrus fruits arose in ארץ  ישראל in regards to Shmita and Maaser. 

Picking Jaffa Oranges over 100 years ago in Israel

That could mean that until then only non Jews had farms or that oranges and lemons did not grow then in ארץ ישראל.

Comments please.

Shiur Sukkah 39a-b 06/28/22

BSD

Sukkah 39a-b 

Sivan 29, 5782. June 28, 2022

1- We moved on to the next Mishnah that discusses acquiring the ד’ מינים in the year of Shvi’is. שמיטה. 

חב"ד | עמדה שבועית | שנת שמיטה, שנת רוגע

2- Discussed some general Mitzvos of שמיטה starting with the Mitzvah of ונטשתה, being מפקיר all the produce, grains, fruits and vegetables one has. 

Shmita Today - Agudat Shmita

Does one actually need to be מפקיר at the start of שמיטה, or does it happen on it’s own – meaning that the Torah removes a person’s ownership from these products. Like ‘eminent domain’. 

File:Hefker Shmita Jerusalem 2014.jpg

3- Spoke about the ,קדושת פירות שביעית , the prohibition not to waste them, the method to discard them and what to do about peels of fruits and vegetables. 

Shemitah, Chapter 19: Handling Leftovers

Mentioned the opinion of Rav Kook that in שמיטה year, one should not add wine to the הבדלה cup so that it over fills. The spillage goes to waste! 

Ditto for spilling some of the wine to extinguish the candle. 

How to Make Havdalah - Shabbat

Some say that on Pesach night one should not use wine of שמיטה for the second cup of the סדר. To use this wine to give מכות…… would not be proper. 

4- The main issue of our Mishna and Gemara is the purchasing of the ד’ מינים in the year of Shvi’is. שמיטה. 

Sukkot

The פירות שביעית cannot be sold or purchased . Some say this prohibition in מן התורה. 

Under normal circumstances, since all fruits are הפקר, there should no problem acquiring the ד’ מינים at all. 

However, if one cannot find them, he needs to pay for them and the Mishnah suggests a way of avoiding the two issues that arise. 

The two issues are: 

A- The business aspect of it. This transaction is prohibited. [for the buyer, seller, or both]. 

SHMITA: The Israeli farmers who are giving their land a year's rest - Jewish Ledger

B- The monies paid become ‘holy’ just as פירות שביעית. 

Tyrian Sheqel

5- We learnt the text of the Tosfos that discusses the prohibition of selling of פירות שביעית. Their conclusion is the איסור סחורה בפירות שביעית applies only to the actual owner who picks and sells these fruits. Anything else, like the picker’s son selling it, is permitted. Perhaps, Tosfos, adds that buying them wholesale and selling it retail at a high price is also אסור. 

On the Seventh Year, Zev Rests: The Story of the Farmer From Kfar Gideon - This will be Israeli Zev Steiglitz's eighth Shemittah year off the farm - Chabad-Lubavitch News

6- The Mishna says that one should ask the seller to gift him the אתרוג and the buyer’s payment should apply only to the Lulav, Hadasim and Arovos. 

If the seller refuses to do so, the Gemara suggests that at the very least, they should discuss an overall price’ or total price for all 4 מינים. The individual price or cost of the אתרוג [which has the שמיטה problem] should not be mentioned. 

The term used in such a scenario is called in Sha”s הבלעה. 

We discussed this briefly as it applies in הלכות שבת and other places. 

Mark Siegband - Judaica Oil Painting Chassidic Jewish Rabbi Holding A Sefer Torah Scroll For Sale at 1stDibs

7- We mentioned a case of a Kehilah that needed to a ספר תורה. An individual who owned one was convinced to sell his which is problematic as one is not allowed to sell his Sefer Torah even if he needs the money for food! 

See here an interesting extension on the concept of הבלעה suggested by Reb Yosef Chaim of Baghdad, the בן איש חי:

He suggested that the seller charge primarily for the silver case and include the ספר תורה in this general price. 

ערלה

Without fear of foreskin : r/wine

Shiur Sukkah 39a (2) 06/21/22

BS”D

Sukkah 39a (2) 

Sivan 22, 5782. June 21, 2022

1- We spent most of the Shiur learning a fundamental Tosfos – עובר לעשייתן –  that discusses the issue of making the ברכה on the Lulav. 

The Mitzvah of Lulav is unique and thus the need for clarification. 

In general, Brachos on Mitzvos need to be made prior to the קיום המצוה. If the Mitzvah was performed, according to many opinions, one cannot say the Brachah. 

Before After Comparison Make A Change For The Better Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Free Image. Image 60215235.

Now, ‘prior’ does not mean merely before the Mitzvah, but rather immediately before. No time must pass between the ברכה and the Mitzvah. 

Just like with Tefillin, we do not say the Brachah when it is still in the Tefillin bag. It is said when it’s already on the arm right before tightening the knot or on the arm.  

Lulav presents a problem since the Lulav and Esrog must be close by and ready to be lifted. But when one lifts them, he is יוצא. So when does one make the ברכה? Prior to lifting it is too early, as he has not ‘engaged’ the Lulav and Esrog yet. And once it’s lifted, it’s already done. 

Man Holds Traditional Image & Photo (Free Trial) | Bigstock

That is the issue Tosfos tackles and offers 4 answers:

A – The ברכה is made when picking up just the Lulav.  He  is not יוצא yet and therefore considered ‘prior’, because the lifting of the Lulav is only the beginning of the Mitzvah since one needs to pick up the Esrog as well to fulfill the Mitzvah of ארבע מינים. 

B – One picks up both the Lulav and the Esrog and then makes the Brachah, but the Esrog (or the Lulav) is held upside down. So the ברכה is made prior to the Mitzvah. At the completion of the Brocho one turns the Esrog (or the Lulav) rightside up and only then is one יוצא.

Sukkot | Chosen People Ministries | Jewish High Holidays

 C – Both the Lulav and the Esrog are lifted right side up. To avoid being יוצא, one has the כוונה NOT to be יוצא. The ברכה is then made and the intention is only now to be יוצא. Thus the ברכה, is thus made prior to the מצווה.

7 Causes of a Car That Won't Go in Reverse (and What You Should Do)

D – There is no issue at all even after shaking the Lulav and Esrog since in addition to the holding the Lulav and Esrog after the ברכה, we do נענועים. Meaning that this מצווה is a long process so the ברכה can be made even after the first moment of its start. 

 

This fourth answer is interesting (נענועים is part of the מצווה) and Tosfos itself raises issues with it. 

Lulav: Let Me See You Shake Your Mitzvah – Education

2 – To support the 4th answer above, Tosfos quotes the Yerushalmi that ‘the elites of ירושלים walked around all day holding the Lulav and Esrog’. 

3 – We mentioned the ריטב״א that explains the idea of a ברכה prior to a מצווה.

Here are his words.

וכתב הרי”ט ז”ל וטעם זה שאמרו חז”ל לברך על המצוות עובר לעשייתן כדי שיתקדש תחלה בברכה ויגלה ויודיע שהוא עושה אותה מפני מצות השי”ת. ועוד כי הברכות מעבודת הנפש וראוי להקדים עבודת הנפש למעלה שהיא עבודת הגוף

4 – From here we continued to discuss the idea of saying לשם יחוד prior to a Mitzvah. It’s a big topic and perhaps we will come back to this at length in the future IY”H. 

Leshem Yichud - Halachipedia

Briefly, the saying of  לשם יחוד is not mentioned in Shas or ראשונים and the custom (of some) to say it began about 500 years ago and is based on Kabbalah. 

There was fierce opposition to this practice and we discussed the נודע ביהודה’s sharp words against saying it. Yoreh Deah, Teshuva 93

ולדעתי זה רעה חולה בדורנו ועל הדורות שלפני זמננו שלא ידעו מנוסח זה ולא אמרוהו

ועל הדור היתום הזה אני אומר ישרים דרכי ה’ וצדיקים ילכו בם וחסידים יכשלו בם

We pointed out that in Chabad we find the Alter Rebbe omitting its saying in his Siddur [except before ברוך שאמר] but in Likutei Torah he explain the significance of לשם יחוד  and concludes that ‘and therefore we say לשם יחוד before every Mitzvah’. 

See here on this topic. 

 

Shiur Sukkah 39a 6/14/22

BS” D

Suka 39a

Sivan 15, 5782. June 14, 2022

1-While on the topic of הלל we discussed the issue of the גמרא in Megillah (23, a)  כל פסוקא דלא פסקיה משה רבינו אנן לא פסקינן

Which means that one should only say an entire פסוק.

Now the full verse is אנא ה’ הושיעה נא אנא ה’ הצליחה נא.

So if saying only part of a פסוק is not proper, how do we say אנא ה’ הושיעה נא twice, which is only part of a complete פסוק. 

In davning we encounter this many times. ה’ מלך ה’ מלך ה’ ימלוך. The first two are part of a פסוק. 

Friday night’s Kiddush begins with (only) the end of a פסוק! 

Kiddush And Havdalah: Should One Sit Or Stand? | The Jewish Press - JewishPress.com | Rabbi Yaakov Hoffman | 22 Kislev 5779 – November 29, 2018 | JewishPress.com

ויהי ערב ויהי בוקר יום השישי

We discussed the Tosfos on our גמרא and the מגן אברהם OC 262 

See here  and here for more sources. 

 

2- Mentioned the letter of the Rebbe (printed in every Tanya) that explains the difference between the two expressions: וכו׳ and וגו׳.

וגומר means ‘what follows to the end’. This is used when quoting a פסוק not in its entirety. 

Et Cetera or Etcetera? Which is the Correct U.S. Spelling? - One Minute English

וכולהו means ‘etc’ is used when writing part of a מאמר חז”ל. 

See below.

3- Rava says that one should not pause between יהא שמיה רבא to מברך. 

We discussed a very interesting ספר with a very uncommon name. The 

Machzor of Vitri. 

מחזור ויטרי was written by one of Rashi’s students, Reb Simcha of Vitri, a town in Northeastern France.

 

This ספר is a compilation of Halachos and Minhagim as practiced in Vitri, based upon the teachings and rulings of Rashi. 

We spoke about the fact that despite the knowledge that this מחזור existed, due to its often quoted Halochos and Minhogim from this ספר, it was first printed less than 100 years ago! 

 

Other editions have followed. 

4- Tosfos and many other ראשונים quote this important work in numerous places.

A famous quote, relevant to our Gemara, is right at the beginning of Shas, (3a) where Tosfos quotes the מחזור ויטרי’s explanation of the words in Kaddish 

יהא שמיה רבא מברך לעלם ולעלמי עלמיא

According the מחזור ויטרי, this is split into two separate תפילות. The words mean:

1-  יהא שמיה – רבא

May the name of Hashem – be great. יהא שמיה – should be  רבא.

We pray for a time when His Name will be greater than it is today. Greater, because we will read it with the YHVH pronunciation and the full 4 letters. 

[שמ of י-ה, will be רבא]. 

מברך לעלם ולעלמי עלמיא   – 2, is the beginning of another prayer. His Name should be blessed forever. 

Tosfos, however, argues and brings proof from our Gemore (Rovo says not to pause) that the words 

 יהא שמיה רבא מברך לעלם ולעלמי עלמיא is one continuous prayer. 

May His name, that is great, be blessed. 

הרב רונן חזיזה בשיר מרטיט מחזק ומרגש שלא תשאיר עין יבשה "אמן יהא שמיה רבא" - YouTube

5- Speaking of the מחזור ויטרי we mentioned that some say (based upon various manuscripts) that the source of wearing a גרטל during Davning is the מחזור ויטרי. See ב”ח OC 91. 

See here from the Rebbe about the impotence of the Gartel. Note what he says about the ישמעאלים that wear their gartels on their heads….

Arab Man And Camel On The Farm Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Free Image. Image 47235189.

6- We suggested a reason as to why the Gemara says Shabbos (119, b) that one that says אמן יהא שמיה רבא מברך לעלם ולעלמי עלמיא with great כוונה can wipe away 70 years of דין. 

Why these few words in particular? Does it carry more weight than, say, קריאת שמע or שמונה עשרה?

Why Is a Minyan Needed for Kaddish? - Mourner's Kaddish

Perhaps the reason is that, unlike any other תפילה that can be said ביחידות, you can only say אמן יהא שמיה רבא מברך לעלם ולעלמי עלמיא after listening to the Chazan say the Kaddish. 

Listening first is the greatest virtue…….

 

 

Shiur Sukkah 38b 7/7/22

BSD

Sukkah 38b

Sivan 8, 5782. June 7, 2022

1- In regards to שומע כעונה, we mentioned a few point of the previous shiur. 

A listener, the שומע, is considered as if he actually said it. He verbalized it. How to be a Good Listener. Hint: It's not about you | by John Ciprian | The Startup | Medium

But what if in addition to the listening there is another factor? 

Examples:

A – Listening to the עשרת בני המן. The חזן that reads these ten names needs to say it in one breath. Now the listener also needs to say them in one breath. 

megillat esther - Keter Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Crown) tanach on the ten sons of Haman - Mi Yodeya

Does שומע כעונה cause the listener to be considered that not only did he ‘say it’ but he also ‘said it in one breath’. The Rogatchover says no. His reasoning is that only words that are heard can be considered as if he is כעונה.

Cranky? Feeling better may be as simple as breathing right. | Mindpath Health

The חזן’s holding his breath is an action. Not speech. Therefore it cannot be transmitted to others.

B – The Minhsg of a Shul in Rome. At ברכת כהנים, only one כהן would say the ברכות! The other כהנים would listen and used שומע כעונה as if they themselves uttered the ברכות. 

N12 - צפו: רבבות בברכת הכהנים בכותל המערבי

We spoke about the בית הלוי that took issue with this מנהג since ברכת כהנים needs to be said loudly בקול רם and that is outside the parameter of שומע כעונה. 

Someone mentioned that perhaps there is also an issue with לברך את עמו ישראל באהבה. One cannot just hear and be יוצא with the speaker’s אהבה…..

2- Discussed that שומע כעונה means that the listener is literally considered as if he is himself is uttering the words. The listener therefore needs to be in a position to say the words or ברכה himself. Like being fully dressed. 

See here from the Alter Rebbe הלכות שחיטה that if the reader is dressed and the שומע is undressed, than is it not proper to do so. 


3- This Shiur, coming right after שבועות, we mentioned the language used by the Previous Rebbe קבלת התורה בשמחה ובפנימיות. 

בס"ד חג השבועות לומדים שיחה מאת הרבי מליובאוויטש על שבועות, לקבלת התורה בשמחה ובפנימיות | זריקת יהדות וחסידות הפודקאסט | Podcasts on Audible | Audible.com

שמחה? 

At first glance it needs clarification since we know that לימוד התרה needs to be with fear, awe and trepidation just as the תורה was given under such serious circumstances. 

See here the Rebbe’s letter to JB discussing this issue. 

The Rebbe and the Rav - Life & Times

 

 

We read the Tosfos on Daf 28a that explains why the birds flying over Yonason ben Uziel were scorched. They quote a Yerushalmi that seems to say that מתו תורה  was indeed an occurrence that had elements of שמחה! 

Shiur Sukkah 28a

ירושלמי חגיגה (ב, א) וקהלת רבה (ז, יח)    ….. אלא יושבין היינו וחוזרין בדברי תורה מן התורה לנביאים ומן הנביאים לכתובים והיו הדברים שמחים כנתינתן מסיני והיתה האש מלחכת אותן כלחיכתן מסיני ועיקר נתינתן מסיני לא ניתנו אלא באש וההר בוער באש עד לב השמים….

Burning Bird stock photo. Image of fire, abstract, glow - 18153832

 

4- We learnt the Gemara about the 3 historical stages of saying הלל and Rava’s explanation of the parts of הלל in stage 2 that were a זכר to stage one.  

5- We discussed the מחלוקת  of the גאונים, Rashi, Tosfos and others about what to do in middle of שמונה עשרה when one hears the חזן saying נקדישך or קדיש – is it a הפסק or not.

Orthodox Congregations Plan Outdoor Minyans - Atlanta Jewish Times

According to some, pausing to listen (in order to be יוצא saying נקדישך ) using שומע כעונה is very problematic since by listening one is ‘saying’ it and that constitutes a הפסק. 

Others differ and say that it’s fine. Why? See AR OC 104, 5.

Hallelujah! Prophetic Scripture of Considerable Significance

6- We read the Yerushalmi concerning the word  הללויה

Is it one word or two words הללו י-ה ? If two then the י-ה is קודש.  

 

                                                                                                    

Shiur ~ Celebrating 20 Years ~ Sukkah 38a. 05/25/22

BSD

Suka 38a

Iyar 15, 5782. May 25, 2022

Many topics discussed. 

1- The Mishnah says that ‘all day is Kosher for the Mitzvah of Lulav’. 

The question (Pnei Yehoshua)  is that it’s obvious as it says ולקחתם לכם ביום הראשון. 

lulav | GRACE in TORAH

יום means all day.  Why would we think any different?  

Here is the answer of the Chasam Soifer. But first:

Rabbeinu Tam - Wikidata

2- We discussed briefly the opinions of Rabbeinu Tam and the Geonim as to when בין השמשות  and צאת הכוכבים begin. 

The basics are as follows: First comes Shkia, followed by 18 minutes of  בין השמשות, (which is ספק יום ספק לילה) followed by night צאת הכוכבים, לילה. 

Jerusalem Painting: Sunset over Migdal David in Jerusalem - Alex Levin

The question is when exactly is Shkia? 

Briefly, say the sun dips below the horizon at 6:00 PM. That would be zero degrees. 

After sunset, the sun is below the horizon and its rays illuminate the sky overhead. The sky between the ground and the sun’s rays is in the Earth’s shadow. A twilight photometer measures the reduction in sunlight at the top of the Earth’s shadow as the sun continues to sink below the horizon. (The 

According to the Geonim 6:00 PM is the beginning of בין השמשות. That is when the sun dips further, from  zero to 6.5°.  

18 minutes later, when the sun is at about 6.5°  is  צאת הכוכבים and the beginning of night. 

So for people that follow the Geonim, at 6:18 PM is night for all practical purposes. מלאכה on Friday is strictly forbidden.  Etc.

However, according to Rabbeinu Tam, 6:00 PM, when the sun disappears below the horizon,  is only the beginning of Shkia. The ‘real’ Shkia begins only at 6:54 PM.

Until then it is still day time. יום ממש.

Best Astronomy Apps | Star Finder App | Star Map | Night Sky | Vito Technology

בין השמשות  only begins then, and continues for 18 minutes until 7:12 PM, or about 16.5°.

For people that follow Rabbeinu Tam, night only begins at 7:12 for all Miztvos such as Krias Shma and the start and ending of Shabbos or a fast day. 

See here for le’havdil secular definitions.

https://www.weather.gov/fsd/twilight

3 – We discussed that the Alter Rebbe in his Shulchan Aruch rules like Rabbeinu Tam!

It is only when the Siddur was published that the letter of the Alter Rebbe’s final ruling was publicized where he reverses himself and very clearly rules like the Geonim which is why we follow their ruling. 

[we touched briefly on the expressions used by the Alter Rebbe in this letter] 

3- We mentioned the Gemara in Zevachim that states (according to Rabeinnu Tam) that in the Beis Hamikdash ‘night’ began early. At the beginning of Shkia. Not at צאת הכוכבים. 

Temple of Solomon | Beit Hamikdash | Templo de Salomão - YouTube

Meaning that for example, in the Beis Hamikdash, all Mitzvos needed to be done before 6:00 PM even though nightfall begins 72 minutes later. Thus,  the time for the Mitzvah of Lulav in the בית המקדש ends at 6:00 PM, whereas outside the Beis Hamikdash, it only ends at 7:12. 

The Mitzva of Lulav applies in the בית המקדש (all seven days of Sukkos) and the rest of the world (just on the first day).  Both Mitzvos are derived from the same פסוק. 

Lulav And Etrog: Sukkot's Strange, Awesome Ritual (PHOTOS) | HuffPost Communities

Therefore, concludes the Chasam Sofer the Mishna must tell you that you the Lulav can be taken ‘all day’ meaning, until 6:54 and not as in the Beis Hamikdash. We should not err that we need to follow the time structure of the Beis Hamikdosh.  

4- The Mishna says that if an adult that cannot read הלל (or any other תפילה) and asks his wife, servant or son to read הלל for him, in order to be יוצא Hallel, he must repeat the words on his own. The reason is that since they are not מחוייב, listening to them despite שומע כעונה, is insufficient to be יוצא . 

A Rosh Chodesh Prayer | Jewish Community Watch

The Mishna concludes with a ‘curse’ – woe on to the person that does not know how to read!  Wow. 

We mentioned the interesting twist on this curse by Reb Pinchos of Frankfurt a תלמיד of the Maggid of Mezritch. 

He proposes in the  פנים יפות בחוקתי, that it’s actually a ברכה as the term used is תבוא מארה

We find that מארה means eating and not being satisfied. See Rashi בחקותי כו ,כו.

When a person is not satisfied after a meal his Bentching is only מדרבנן. Thus, if the father eats and will not reach כדי שביעה then his wife or son can indeed be מוציא him as they are both at the דרבנן level. 

So the ברכה is for the father never to eat כדי שביעה and his wife and son can Bentch for him.

5- We spoke about the powerful and general concept of ערבות. 

If, for example, the entire כלל ישראל was מקיים the Mitzvah of Lulav except for one single person, the result is that every individual of  כלל ישראל is Halachically still considered מחויב in the Mitzvah of Lulav. 

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When we approach this single Jew, this חיוב which is on us on us all, even allows us to make the ברכה for this single person. We can say וצונו even though we were already מקיים מצוות לולב!  

This amazing rule however, applies only if this person does not know how to say the ברכה himself. 

lulav-chabad-japan - Chabad Tokyo Japan

Why is that? What does the literacy of a person have to do with our Arvus? 

If he does not know how to make the ברכה are we not obligated, as above, in his Mitzvah of Lulav. 

The Avnei Nezer (OC 40, 4. CM 26) suggest that just like in a monetary case of ערבות the lender cannot approach the guarantor for payment of the loan prior to attempting to collect the debt from the borrower. Similarly, true, there is ערבות in מצוות, but first the one that is actually obligated needs to try on his own. Therefore if he can make the ברכה he must do it himself and not rely on another person to do it for him thru ערבות. 

We mentioned that the Alter Rebbe writes an interesting expression about this and perhaps that is what he meant. OC 272 KA 2

דבשלמא מי שיצא כבר ידי חובתו, שאינו מחוייב בדבר אלא מדין ערבות, לכן כיון שהחייב בעצמו יכול לפטור חובו בעצמו אין להערב לפוטרו,

6- הלל. We began to discuss (and will continue bl”n next week) the three stages in the method to say הלל. 

The original stage was for one person to say the entire הלל and the crowd would say הללויה . How many times did they repeat הללויה? 

‘123 times equal to the number of the years of Aharon HaKohen’. 

Mentioned briefly the Sicha of the Rebbe on this. LS 23. Mase 2. 

To be continued.