Shiur Sukkah 27 a-b 10/12/21


Sukkah 27 a-b. 

Cheshvon 6, 5782. October 12, 2021

1- Sholosh Se’Udos. We read the Tosfos that states unequivocally that one needs to eat bread for the third Shabbos meal. Fruits are insufficient to fulfill this obligation. 

Minhag Chabad is explained at length in a Sicha of the Rebbe. See here. LS 21, page 84. 

2- We began to delve into a deep and much written about topic in ראשונים and אחרונים. 

Namely – how does one define the concept of ownership in Halachah. 

As an introduction we mapped out the wide area of ‘ownership’ in הלכה. 

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Ranging from pure 100% ownership to the total opposite of non-ownership, like…. stealing. 

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Within this range, between these two pivots, are ‘other’ type of ownerships: Partnership, shares, temporary ownership, leasing, renting, borrowing, easements, right of first refusal etc. 

Share Holders Disputes

3- For starters, 100% ownership is caused by either inheriting something or purchasing it. 

The classic example where one needs 100% ownership is an Esrog. ולקחתם לכם ביום הראשון 

From Sukkot to morning-sickness: the magic of the etrog - Jewish World -

Ownership of an Esrog needs to be, on the first day of Sukkos, 100%. Borrowing is less than 100% and therefore not sufficient. As it says ולקחתם לכם. 

We will discuss an Esrog owned  in a partnership and an Esrog that a Kehila purchases for all to use BLN next week. 

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We mentioned that buying an Esrog on credit, according to some, is a bit of a ‘defect’. We thus find the Minhag of many to pay for the Daled Minim before Sukkos. Minhag Chabad is not to be particular on this. 

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And here’s to you Mr. Rubinson…

4- We related the story of Mr. Rubinson who sponsored the printing of the שדי חמד.

רבי חיים חזקיהו מדיני – אישי ישראל

At the special Farbrengen the Rebbe made upon its competition Mr. Rubinson asked the Rebbe to say something about the שדי חמד.

שדי חמד .קה"ת .ניו יורק תש"ט 1949 סט שלם ובכריכות מקוריות שלמות .יצא לאור בהוראת הרבי מלובויטש .מצב כללי טוב מאוד בחלק מהכרכים יש נגעי עש קלים בכריכה .

One volume was brought o the Rebbe who opened it at random. The page opened was a discussion about this very topic – if it is necessary to pay for the Daled Minim before Sukos.  See here.

קובץ:יוסף חיים רבינסון.jpg

יוסף חיים רבינסון

5- Continuing on this topic, ‘ownership from zero to 100’, we brought up מתנה על מנת להחזיר. Whereas the ,גמרא Kiddushin 6b, explicitly says that it is considered 100% ownership, we discussed if this can be understood in the modern world.

After all, how is it 100% yours if one must return it?

We suggested that this תנאי of returning can be viewed as an ‘outlier condition’ that does not affect the ownership. If the person did not return it then he must pay for something that was never his. If he does return it, as agreed, it retroactively places the object in his possession 100%. 

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So much for the Esrog.

We began the sugya of ownership of a Suka. The Gemara brings the two opinions regarding the ownership of a Sukkah.  To be continued.

6- We discussed the opinion of Rebbi Elizezer that one cannot go Sukkah hopping on Sukkos. One must stay and use only his personal Sukkah all seven days. The reasons given are either it’s derived from the פסוק  or as not to embarrass the the Sukkah by leaving to another.


Shiur Sukkah 26b – 27a 10/05/2021


Sukkah 26b – 27a 

Tishrei 29, 5782. October 5, 2021

Welcome back. 

1- We began with the Mishna that relates two stories about eating in or outside a Sukah: 

מַעֲשֶׂה וְהֵבִיאוּ לוֹ לְרַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי לִטְעוֹם אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל, וּלְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל שְׁתֵּי כוֹתָבוֹת וּדְלִי שֶׁל מַיִם, וְאָמְרוּ, הַעֲלוּם לַסֻּכָּה. וּכְשֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי צָדוֹק אֹכֶל פָּחוֹת מִכַּבֵּיצָה, נְטָלוֹ בַמַּפָּה וַאֲכָלוֹ חוּץ לַסֻּכָּה, וְלֹא בֵרַךְ אַחֲרָיו:

Rabban Gamliel and Reb Yochanan ate food items that are not קובע inside a Sukkah, despite the fact that Halachically, one can eat them outside the Sukkah.

Reb Tzadok, ate less than a שיעור outside the Sukkah.

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2- We scratched the surface on some topics of the long Tosfos. 

  • How much one needs to eat to be מחוייב to Bentch Min Hatorah. 
  • To make a ברכה אחרונה one needs to eat a כזית. However, Tosfos quotes the Yerushalmi that if one eats a בריה, a whole grape, a bean or pomegranate seed, a ברכה אחרונה is required even if it it’s less than a כזית. 
  • The הלכה is unclear and therefore the Alter Rebbe suggests that one should always eat more than a כזית of such בריהs. See here

3- The ברכה before eating has no שיעור as Rashi writes. Even a crumb requires a Brachah.

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אסור להנות מעולם הזה בלא ברכה. 

This is based on the Gemara in 35a ברכות

We discussed the Pnei Yoshua that writes a very fundamental point. “Some things are so obvious that the Torah has no need to say it, does not state it explicitly, but it is still מן התורה”.  

[We prefaced it by what Reb Elichaim Roitblat, the legendary מלמד of Oholei Torah, used to say: Vu shteit az men tor nisht kushen a katz in mitten Shmonei Esre……]

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Since the Gemara says that making a Brachah prior to eating is a logical idea – for how can one eat something that belongs to Hashem without asking permission first, which is the actual ברכה – this reasoning creates a חיוב מן התורה! 

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May I have one please?

Meaning that ברכות הנהנין are MiDeoraisa. This novel idea generated much discussion amongst many אחרונים. We mentioned the Reb Akivah Eiger in Brachos 12a. concerning a ספק ברכות הנהנין. 

The Rebbe quotes this פני יהושע in regards to an idea concerning the the חינוך of a קטן.  See    26   ‘הע  , p65  לקוטי שיחות – לה

4- We continued to the next Mishna. 

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה סְעוּדוֹת חַיָּב אָדָם לֶאֱכֹל בַּסֻּכָּה, אַחַת בַּיּוֹם וְאַחַת בַּלָּיְלָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין לַדָּבָר קִצְבָה, חוּץ מִלֵּילֵי יוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג בִּלְבָד. וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, מִי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל לֵילֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן, יַשְׁלִים בְּלֵילֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, 

אֵין לַדָּבָר תַּשְׁלוּמִין, עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (קהלת א) מְעֻוָּת לֹא יוּכַל לִתְקֹן, וְחֶסְרוֹן לֹא יוּכַל לְהִמָּנוֹת:

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Reb Eliezer says that one must eat 14 meals during Sukkos. The חכמים counter that and say the one needs to eat only on the first night of Sukos. 

Reb Eliezer’s reason: תשבו כעין תדורו. A person usually eats two meals a day in his house. Ditto for Sukkos. 

The Chachamim’s reason: All of Sukkos, (except for the first night) one has to option of not eating at all- he can fast. Therefore there cannot be an obligation to eat in the Sukkah. 

The issues we discussed:

A– What about שלש סעודות on Yom Tov? If one needs to eat this 3rd meal then it would add up to 16 meals. One extra meal on the first and another on last day of Yom Tov. 

The מגן אברהם deducts from this that indeed, on Yom Tov, one has no obligation to eat שלש סעודות. 

However there is one Shabbos on Sukkos. So the שלש סעודות of Shabbos needs to eaten inside the Sukkah. So we are back to 15 meals on Sukkos?

One answer, from the חשק שלמה, is arrived at by him first asking another question. It says in the Mishna:

 רַבִּי  אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה סְעוּדוֹת חַיָּב אָדָם לֶאֱכֹל בַּסֻּכָּה, אַחַת בַּיּוֹם וְאַחַת בַּלָּיְלָה. 

Since the first Sukkos meal is at night, should he not have said אַחַת בַּלָּיְלָה and then אַחַת בַּיּוֹם? 

The answer is that Reb Eliezer agrees with the Chachamim concerning the first meal. He adds another 14. The 14 meals begin after the first one.

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So we have 13 for the rest of Sukkos (14 meals minus the first) and one extra on Shabbos for שלש סעודות , totaling 14! 

B- What did the Chachamim mean when they say that ‘one does not have an obligation to eat on Sukkos’? Is it not an obligation to eat סעודת יום טוב? 

Tosfos here actually says that there is no חיוב. The consequence of this ruling is that if one forgets to say יעלה ויבוא on Yom Tov there would be no need to repeat Bentching as there is no חיוב to eat bread on Yom Tov! 

We mentioned the Tosfos in ברכות that differ and say that one is indeed obligated to eat bread on Yom Tov. 49a. 

What the חכמים meant to say is that there is no obligation to eat in the סוכה (like the first night). But one still needs to eat פת on Yom Tov, because of Yom Tov. (albeit inside the Suka).   

That is the הלכה. See Alter Rebbe OC 639, 17. 

C- We discussed the בעל המאור who explains why we must eat in the Sukkah all 7 days on Sukkos but only need to eat Matzah on the first night of Pesach. 

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D– We spoke about the חזקוני who writes that although there is no חיוב to eat מצה except on the first night of פסח, one who does eat מצה all פסח is מקיים  a Mitzvah. 

Why no ברכה? Good question. 

5 – Don’t recall how we got to talk about a ממזר….. but we mentioned a common misconception (in my humble opinion) of Chabadniks concerning this topic. Based upon what the Alter Rebbe writes at the end of 7th Perek in Tanya some have the idea that תשובה does not help for this grave sin.

It’s incorrect. Teshuva does indeed work for someone who ר״ל caused a ממזר to be born. The ממזר raoming around  may be embarrassing for the repentant father, but his Teshuva is accepted. That is the simple פשט in the Gemara in Yevamos 22b.

וְהַאי בַּר תְּשׁוּבָה הוּא וְהָתְנַן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן מְנַסְיָא אוֹמֵר אֵיזֶהוּ מְעֻוּוֹת לֹא יוּכַל לִתְקוֹן זֶה הַבָּא עַל הָעֶרְוָה וְהוֹלִיד מִמֶּנָּה מַמְזֵר הַשְׁתָּא מִיהָא עוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֵׂה עַמְּךָ הוּא

The Gemara objects: Is he in fact able to repent after fathering a mamzer? Didn’t we learn in a mishna that Shimon ben Menasya says: Which is: “That which is crooked cannot be made straight” (Ecclesiastes 1:15)? This is referring to one who engaged in intercourse with a relative who is forbidden to him and fathered a mamzer with her. This implies that he has no possibility of achieving total repentance. The Gemara responds: At least now, after repenting, he is considered as one who acts according to the deeds of your people. Although he cannot totally rectify his transgression, his child is liable to receive punishment for cursing or hitting him.

What the AR writes is that as opposed to other sins, when doing proper תשובה, in addition to being forgiven, the sparks of קדושה that temporarily descended into קליפה, are elevated. 

Conversely the actual sin of creating a ממזר, can be wiped out thru proper תשובה. However, the sparks that were dragged down into this ממזר cannot be elevated since it has morphed into a human being. 

As the AR writes: 

וּבָזֶה יוּבָן מַאֲמַר רַזַ”ל7: “אֵיזֶהוּ מְעֻוָּת שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לִתְקֹן, זֶה שֶׁבָּא עַל הָעֶרְוָה וְהוֹלִיד מַמְזֵר”. שֶׁאָז גַּם אִם יַעֲשֶׂה תְּשׁוּבָה גְּדוֹלָה כָּל כָּךְ, אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַעֲלוֹת הַחִיּוּת לִקְדֻשָּׁה, מֵאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר יָרְדָה לָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְנִתְלַבְּשָׁה בְּגוּף בָּשָׂר וָדָם.

ומסיימים בטוב. א געזונטען ווינטער. 


See more here

Suka 26a (2)


Suka 26a (2)

Elul 23, 5781. August 31, 2021

1- Our Gemara discusses the issue of one who is ill and sitting in the Sukkah is painful for him. He is not obligated to sit in the Sukkah, and his aides are פטור  as well.

2- We briefly spoke about the idea of adhering to a doctor’s orders when not well. The Gemara in BK 85a based on the verse  ורפא ירפא rules that a doctor has permission to heal people.

דתניא דבי ר’ ישמעאל אומר (שמות כא, יט) ורפא ירפא מכאן שניתן רשות לרופא לרפאות

Discussed as why we need a פסוק to tell us that when it’s logical; just as much that one needs an architect’s services to design a building since he is an expert?

Many answers on this question including Rashi (in BK) that one can argue that since ailments come from Hashem, who are we to remove it. Or that perhaps a doctor can charge. Or that one must listen to the doctor’s instruction.

3- Mentioned the opinion of some ראשונים that doctors can and should only heal external wounds. They should never attempt to heal internal sicknesses and of course any procedure that is invasive. See here from the Evan Ezra Shmos 21, 19. See here from Rabeinu Bachya.

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When the sages in Baba Kama 85 stated that the words ורפא ירפא in our verse constitute permission for a physician to practice his art they said so only in connection with externally visible injuries or symptoms of diseases; internal diseases, especially mental diseases are not subject to treatment by physicians of flesh and blood. They are the sole domain of the One who provides the soul to all living creatures. Rabeinu Bachya

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4- Gemara discusses sleeping and napping outside the Sukkah. We mentioned the question asked in Israel by a fellow that travelled daily by bus from Tel Aviv to Yerushalayim. Inevitably he would fall asleep. So what should he do on Sukkos when sleeping outside the Sukkah is prohibited? Should he stand?

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5- Sleeping in Tefillin. We discussed the question of Rabeinu Yona in Brachos and the Ritva in our Gemara.

How can one be allowed to sleep in tefillin, even for a few seconds, when at that time he is מסיח דעת from the תפילין?

They derive from this הלכה (that napping in Tefillin) that היסח הדעת in Tefillin does not mean a constant focus and concentration of the תפילין. One does not need to do that while wearing Tefillin. Being passive, such as discussing business, would be allowed.

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What it does means is that doing something contrary to the respect of the Tefillin is prohibited. Such as cracking jokes or acting frivolously. That is היסח הדעת according to the רבינו יונה והריטב”א.

That is the accepted opinion as The Alter Rebbe writes 28,1. See below.

We mentioned that others argue and require constant concentration on the תפילין.  See שאגת אריה .

6- We discussed the reason behind the  Pri Megodim’s take that although נטילת לולב  and סוכה are both מצווה שבגופו, nevertheless, Suka is more so than Lulav.

7-  We mentioned the story of the Rebbe’s Siyum on סוכה and the highly charged moment when the Rebbe spoke about מרים בת בילגה.

See here, and many links in Hebrew. Great links here in English.

כתיבה וחתימה טובה לשנה טובה ומתוקה.

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כח דין חליצת התפילין ובו י’ סעיפים:
א אסור להסיח דעתו מהתפילין א כל זמן שהן עליו ב אפילו רגע אחד קל וחומר מציץ מה ציץ שאין בו אלא אזכרה אחת אמרה תורה ג והיה על מצחו תמיד שלא יסיח דעתו ממנו תפילין שיש בהן אזכרות הרבה על אחת כמה וכמה ואינו נקרא היסח הדעת אלא כשעומד בשחוק או בקלות ראש ד (או שמטריד דעתו כל כך לצרכי הגוף ה עד שלבבו פונה מיראת שמים ו מחמת טרדתו) אבל כשעומד ביראה ומתעסק בצרכיו ז אף על פי שעוסק במלאכתו ובאומנתו ואין דעתו על התפילין ממש אין זה נקרא היסח הדעת שאם לא כן איך יכול כל אדם לילך בתפילין כל היום ומכל מקום מצוה מן המובחר שלא להסיח דעתו מהן כלל ח זולת בשעת תלמוד תורה ט ובתפילת י”ח:

א) רבה בר הונא מנחות לו, ב. רמב”ם הל’ תפילין פ”ד הי”ד.

ב) וכ”ה בסדור ד”ה אסור להסיח.

ג) שמות כח, לח.

ד) הרב רבינו יונה ברכות כג, ב. רא”ש ברכות פ”ג סי’ כח. רא”ש הלכות תפילין סי’ כא. טור סי’ מד. מ”א סי’ מד ס”ק ב. וכ”ה בסידור שם. וראה גם לקמן רס”י מד. ועי’ לקו”ש חי”ד ע’ 151 ואילך. רשימת שיעורים (שבת) ע’ רמב ואילך.

ה) כן משמע ברמב”ם הלכות תפילין פ”ד הי”ג וטור ושו”ע סי’ לח סעיף ט ע”ש במ”א ס”ק יא וס”ק יב.

ו) משמעות הרב רבינו יונה ורא”ש.

ז) רבינו יונה והרא”ש שם.

ח) ב”ח סוף סי’ מד. מ”א סי’ מד ס”ק ב.

ט) האר”י בפע”ח שער התפילין פ”י ובשער הכוונות דרושי התפילין דרוש ה. וכ”ה בסידור שם.

Shiur Sukkah 26a – 08/24/2021


Suka 26a

Elul 16, 5781. August 24, 2021

1- Continuing on the topic of topic of העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה

We discussed the query of Reb Elchanon (BB 48, a) on the meaning of פטור. Does it mean a full complete פטור? Or is it just a ‘pass’; meaning that in reality he is obligated, but since he is occupied with another מצווה, he is allowed to pass this מצווה…? 

The difference would be with מצוות that have תשלומין. If one does not perform them at the correct right time, he is given a chance to do it at a later time. תשלומין

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An example is הבדלה. If one does not have wine on מוצאי שבת then he can do הבדלה until Tuesday. 

Now if someone was very busy on מוצאי שבת with raising funds for פדיון שבויים and simple did not have the time to make הבדלה, can he do it on Sunday? 

If we say that he was פטור completely, then there would not be any תשלומין. On the other hand, if it was only a ‘pass’ or deferment then he should make הבדלה when his time frees up. 

Havdalah |

2- Our Gemore discussed the obligation of an אבל ר”ל  to be in a Sukkah. The reason being is that despite the אבל’s mental turmoil, the Mitzvah of Sukkah should be able to bring about a certain level of focus to the אבל to spend time in the Sukkah. See last week’s shiur. 

 We mentioned the ספר  called תניא רבתי written by an unknown author. 

Interesting that we find numerous ספרים authored by the ראשונים that we have no clue at all (or there is uncertainty or doubt) as to its author. 

The famous one amongst them is the popular ספר החינוך

Perhaps it is a result of the first couple of pages of books that fray first. 

The Tanya writes that an אבל that was very much connected to a particular person who is deceased, can find a leniency and not obligating him to sit in a Sukkah. 

The Alter Rebbe, OC 640, 13, quotes this opinion. Here

כגון שהמת חביב לו מאוד ויש לו צער בסוכה שאינו יכול להיות טרוד שם באבלות כמו בביתו שישב שם בדד פטור מן הסוכה

3- We spoke about the various opinions about taking a trip on סוכות to a location that will not have a Sukkah

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The question is based on the Rashi that says the פטור of ‘travelers are פטור from סוכה’. Rashi says that the purpose is לסחורה – commerce. Meaning that there is a ‘need’,  just like commerce. 

Is taking ones children on a trip a ‘need’ similar to a business trip? Perhaps not. One can say that all business trips are ultimately to ‘take kids on a trip’! 

Great Adventure: How a NJ amusement park goes Orthodox for Passover | The Times of Israel

On the other hand, a business trip is time sensitive. Trips of enjoyment can be done after Sukkos.  

4- We spoke about מצטער פטור מן הסוכה. That is only if the Sukkah was built in a way and location that was usable and comfortable. If and when unforeseen circumstances create a situation that would cause pain and/or discomfort to sit in the Sukkah, then one is indeed  מצטער פטור מן הסוכה. 

However, if one builds a Sukkah לכתחילה is such a place that is unusable, (such as in an unsafe area where sleeping there at night is not advisable) then he must eat in such a Sukkah despite his discomfort.

See the words of the Alter Rebbe. 640,6.

איזהו מצטער  זה שאינו יכול לאכוללג או לישן בסוכה מפני הרוח שמצערו או מפני הזבובים והפרעושיםלה וכיוצא בהן או מפני ריח רע שמריחין בתוך הסוכה וכשיצא ממנה ינצל מכל אלו.

במה דברים אמורים שנולד לו הצער במקרה אחר שעשה שם הסוכה אבל אם עשה סוכה במקום שידוע לו שיצטער אח”כ בה כגון שעשה במקום שהרוח מצויה ושולטת שם ואפילו עשה במקום שלא יהיה לו צער באכילה אלא שיהיה לו צער בשינה כגון שעשה ברחוב שאי אפשר לו לישן שם בנחת מחמת מורא הגנבים והליסטים הרי סוכה זו פסולה ואינו יוצא בה אפילו באכילה אף על פי שאין לו צער כלל בה לפי שכל סוכה שאינו יכול לאכול ולשתות ולטייל ולישן בה בנחת בלא שום צער אינה נקראת דירה כלל לפי שאינו דומה לביתו שיכול לעשות שם כל צרכו בנחתמב.

אבל מי שעשה סוכה ברחוב ואינו מתיירא בנפשו לישן שם בלילה אע”פ שמתיירא שלא יגנבו כלי תשמישו שבסוכה הרי זו כשרה שהרי היא ראויה לו לדירה כיון שאינו מתיירא לישן בה וכלי תשמישו יכול להכניסן בלילה לתוך הבית.

ומכל מקום לכתחלה אין לעשות סוכה ברחוב כמו שנתבאר בסי’ תרל”ז ע”ש

5- Form here we moved on to discuss the issue of a Sukkah that is on the street or on any public property. See here.

Kosher Restaurants with Sukkot: Global List 2014 • YeahThatsKosher

6- We discussed an interesting question of the Pri Megodim. OC, AA 691. If one finds himself in a peculiar position on the first night of Sukkos. He needs to choose to either sit in a Sukkah tonight, but by doing that, he will be unable bench Lulav and Esrog tomorrow morning. Or forgo the sitting tonight and get to a place where he will be able to bentch Lulav. Both Mitzvos are מן התורה .  What should one do? 

Stream Dilemma (n) a situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two different things by Media Learning English | Listen online for free on SoundCloud

We spoke about brilliant point from the Pupa Rebbe שו”ת ויען יוסף. OC. 389. Reb Yosef Greenwald had a very tragic life but miraculously rebuilt it after WW2. See here.  

Pupa Rebbe Yosef Greenwald.jpg

His point: מצטער is פטור מן הסוכה. So if he will sit in the Sukkah, he will have צער that he cannot be מקיים Lulav and Esrog! ‘The pain of the soul is like the pain of the body’. 

So he is פטור מסוכה. He should therefore go for the Lulav. 

Debatable but interesting. 

A Gut Yor to all. 







Shiur Sukkah 25b, 08/17/21


Suka 25b

Elul 9, 5781. August 17, 2021

1- Continued on the topic of העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה

The Gemara brings 3 cases proving that when occupied with doing one Mitzva one is פטור from doing another Mitzva. 

The Things They Carried — The Jewish Studio

One case is from the people that were in charge of handling the casket that contained the bones of יוסף (which they carried out from מצרים as per his request). They were aware that handling the casket, meaning remaining in a state of טומאה, would preclude them from participating in the קרבן פסח. The fact that they chose this option shows that while being busy with one מצוה, they were not obligated to be concerned with another upcoming מצוה.  

This was despite, as Rashi points out, that the קרבן פסח is a much more ‘important’ מצוה than the one they were doing! 

2- We mentioned the צמח צדק OC 113, the quotes this Rashi in regards to a totally different situation.

If one finds himself in the middle of שמונה עשרה, and realizes that the only way he will be able to answer נקדישך is by skipping על הניסים. What does he do? 

Shuckling: Why Do Jews Rock While Praying? - The Swaying Candle - Prayer

The  צמח צדק discusses that saying נקדישך, according to some opinions is מן התורה!! since it sanctifies Hashem. On the other hand, saying על הניסים, important as it is, does not equal to saying נקדישך. So perhaps one should skip it. 

However, based on our Rashi, we see that one does not calculate מצוות this way. Doing a ‘lesser’ מצוה now outweighs a ‘more important’ מצוה in the future. 

3- We spoke again about the תקנה of the רמב״ם, in regards to חזרת הש״ץ.

Menachem Butler on Twitter: "and from that above article by Rabbi Neches, here is the photo of Chazzan Yossele Rosenblatt, wrapped in his prayer shawl and phylacteries, supposedly the only time that

Mentioned the humorous response from Chazzan Yossele Rosenblatt as to why he charges more in comparison to another famous Chazzan. “I am paid for saying the (quite)  שטילער שמונה עשר as well”. 

Poster [2017-8-47]: [Congregation Glory of Israel… [Zavel]… | Flickr

 4- The Gemara talks about the obligation of an אבל ר״ל to sit in a Sukkah. 

We discussed the 2 stages of mourning. אונן is only for the day of the passing of the deceased and the rest of the שבעה when one is a אבל

How I Managed a Very Awkward Shiva Call - Sukkot, Hoshana Rabbah & Simchat Torah

An אונן is פטור from all מצוות. 

We related the encounter between the Rebbe and JB Soloveitchik in 1964 when the Rebbe sat shiva for his mother Rebbetzin חנה ע״ה. 

The Rebbe mentioned that the Rambam’s opinion, in one location,  is that the status of an אונן is only until after the burial.

JB responded that there is no such a Rambam and the Rebbe told him that it is in פירוש המשניות. A few days later the Rebbe wrote to him that interestingly, there is the original manuscript where the Rambam wrote, as above. He then crossed it off and wrote that אנינות continuous until nightfall.  

The letter: 

Odly, one of his students writes the story someone differently. See below. 

5- The Gemara discussed that despite מצטער פטור מן הסוכה, an אבל is obligated to sit in a Sukkah. 

Why would one think differently?

What happens if one’s Sukkah is swarmed by bees or it is excessively hot? Obviously, he may leave and eat in his house. 

Bees Flying, Close-up View, Slow-motion Stock Footage Video (100% Royalty-free) 1052957507 | Shutterstock

However, if his house is also infested with bees or just as hot and leaving his Sukkah does not help him he may not leave his Suka. 

The יראים writes this rule that מצטער does not apply in such a case.  

So why would an אבל not be obligated to sit and mourn in his Sukkah?  What does he have in house that alleviates his pain and mourning more than in his Suka? 

The רא״ש writes that an אבל, by nature likes to be in solitude. Being inside a home gives him more privacy. So one would say that he is allowed to sit home alone. 

[We quipped about the ‘Chairman” who came to the office with one black and one brown shoe] 

Rare image of the first ever recording of Memri TV where a Syrian man bangs his shoe at the French giving away Antioch to the Turks.: SyrianCirclejerkWar

I have a pair just like this at home!

6- Mentioned the חידושי הרי״ם, who poses a question about the time when בני ישראל received the מן. 

Whining about the Manna - America's Keswick Christian Retreat and Conference Center

If everyone received the מן that totally satisfied hunger, additionally,  any taste one would think of would be felt it in his mouth….. Then what was the צדקה וחסד they practiced for the 40 in the desert? Everyone had everything! 

His answer: When the poor man received the מן what would he think of? Herring and bread? A better herring? What did he know about epicurean delicacies? 

Still life of Herring on a Plate with a Bread Roll a Glass of Beer and an Onion Painting by Adriaen Coorte

That is where the חסד of the well and more fortunate kicked it. They would patiently explain to him that one needs to think about foie gras….. . 



– מפניני הרב 257

Shiur Sukkah 25a-b, 8/10/21


Suka 25a-b

Elul 2, 5781.  August 10, 2021

1- We continued on the topic of העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה.

Discussed the ר”ן that places the emphasis on the word עוסק. Meaning not just simple מקיים מצוה. One needs to be a actively involved and preoccupied with one מצוה to be פטור from performing another. 

Brain Teasers - Puzzles by Puzzle Prime

2- We brought up a brain teaser.  Think! 

Preface: העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה

The פני יהושע says that there is a difference between someone that is busy with a מצוה and therefore could not eat מצה on Pesach to one that is busy with a מצוה and ate outside the Sukkah. [Both instances on the first night] 


Whereas on Pesach he was מבטל the מצווה passively, he simply didn’t eat מצה,  Sukkos, on the other hand, he was מבטל the מצוה with a positive action. He ate outside the Sukkah. 

Interfaith dinner offers up customs of Jewish holiday

The 7 days of Sukkos are split into two time zones. The first night versus the rest of the 7 days. See the מנחת חינוך from a previous shiur 

One must eat in a Sukkah on the first night. For the rest of the Yom Tov there is no obligation to eat in a Sukkah. One can fast, drink water or eat fruits that do not require being inside the Sukkah. Only if one wants to eat a סעודה then he is obligated to do so in a Sukkah. So the מצווה on the other days in not to eat outside the Sukkah. 

Why do Jews erect booths during Sukkot? - Jewish World -

Sukkos in Yerushalayim

Generally, a מצוות עשה is a positive commandment. One needs to do it. In other words, a מצוות עשה is a קום ועשה.

If one does not perform it, he transgresses by simply sitting back and not doing it. Like eating Matzah or Putting on Tefillin. A positive action to perform and a שב ואל תעשה to not perform. 

Similarly, eating in a Sukkah on the first night, requires is a positive action. One must go into the Sukkah to perform this מצוה. That’s simple enough. 

Sukkah Stock Footage ~ Royalty Free Stock Videos | Pond5

Now, what about if one eats outside a Sukkah on the first night? He obviously was not  מקיים the מצוה of Sukkah. But how do we view this ביטול המצוה? 

The פני יהושע says it is ביטול המצוה by a positive action קום ועשה because he ate outside a Sukkah. 

Reb Akiva Eiger disagrees. He says that eating outside the Sukkah on the first night of Sukkah is ביטול המצוה in a passive action. ביטול המצוה בשב ואל תעשה. The reasoning is that the מצווה is to eat in a Sukkah. And that he didn’t do. The fact that he ate outside the Sukkah is just the reason that he wasn’t מקיים the מצווה. He ate his meal in the wrong place. 

Let’s think – As Yanki Teitekbaum pointed out, if one eats a full meal on the first night in a Sukkah and then eats another meal outside the Sukkah, he was מקיים the מצווה with the first meal. The second meal, although very wrong to do so, has nothing to do with the positive מצווה of eating in a Sukkah. 

Sukkah Dining: Moroccan Fava Bean Soup with Harissa — Jewish Food Society

It would work in reverse as well. If one eats a full meal on the first night outside a Sukkah and then eats another meal inside the Sukkah, he was מקיים the מצווה with the second meal. The first meal, although very wrong to do so, does not negate that he was מקיים the מצווה with the second meal.

3- Speaking of העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה we discussed if this applies to ‘more important’  Mitzvos in relation to ‘less important’ ones. 

We mentioned the responsa of the Radvaz (4, 13) who was a Rav in Egypt and Yerushalayim. Some say that the Ariza’l was his student.

[He is famous for reinstating חזרת הש”ץ in Egypt many years after the Rambam abolished it. We mentioned this in the past.

See here in Hebrew. And an excellent article here.

English version.

The Radvaz was asked about an unfortunate Jew that was imprisoned and was granted permission for a furlough for just one day a year. What day should he choose?

The Radvaz disagreed with others who said the he should choose פורים or any other ‘important’  מצווה that he was unable to do behind bars.

Pin on freed

His opinion was that he should choose the first possible מצווה that came his way. Even if it seems like a small or of ‘lesser importance’. Foe one should not be the judge on the importance of any mitzvah in comparison to another. 

4- We spoke about the Gemara’s question of who was טמא when the second פסח came around causing them to be unable to participate in the קרבן פסח. 

The obvious question is: With a few million people at the time, it would be inevitable that one would pass away from מתן תורה until the second קרבן פסח came around. So what is the Gemar’s question? 

We mentioned the פנים יפות. Bamidbor 9. He quotes a מדרש  that no one passed away from Yom Kippur of the first year when the first count occurred until Iyar of the second year when the second count was made. 

But see Rashi Shmos 30 :16. 

To be continued BL”N.

5- The ‘vort’ on וַיְעַנְּךָ וַיַּרְעִבֶךָ וַיַּאֲכִלְךָ אֶת הַמָּן 

 ומסיימין בטוב. 


Suka 24b-25a


Suka 24b-25a

Menachem Av 25, 7581.  August 3, 2021

Topics discussed:

1- Using trees as the walls of a Sukkah. Tying the branches so they do not sway. 

2 – Canvas Sukkahs. What is considered ‘swaying’?

Easy-to-assemble, stable sukkah designs: Judaism

See Here

3 – Our Gemara cites a case of trees that have overhanging branches and leaves that reach the ground creating a רשות היחיד beneath them. : Red Japanese Maple Tree - Live Plant Shipped 1 Foot Tall by DAS Farms (No California) : Maple Trees : Garden & Outdoor

Japanese Maple


Should I Plant a Weeping Willow? - Bower & Branch

Weeping Willow Tree

4- קרפף שאינו מוקף לדירה

This is a big topic of which we scratched the surface. 

In short, a קרפף  refers to a large area that has full 4 walls surrounding it – meaning that מן התורה it is a רשות היחיד. 

הרב פנחס יוסף אקרב, עירובין דף סז (בשילוב תמונות ואיורים להמחשה)

However, this area of 75’ x 150’ or larger, if it is not designated for human habitation/living, like a yard or playground, the חכמים forbade one from carrying in it. In square feet it come out to about 9,400 sf. 

קרפף שאינו מוקף לדירה

What area is considered a דירה  and what is not?

The typical example of such an area, that is ‘not made for living’, not a דירה,  is a vegetable patch or an orchard. 

Enclosed vegetable garden - Rustic - Landscape - Minneapolis - by Landsburg Landscape Nursery | Houzz

This creates a myriad of issues: What about a baseball or tennis court? Zoos, stadiums or botanical gardens?

Walled garden - Wikipedia

What if in middle of a enclosed area (like in a summer colony) there is a large vegetable patch? If this patch does not have its own מחיצה is this קרפף מבטל the entire ערוב? 

There are many opinions on the status of such a קרפף. 

5 – After learning 25 daf about the structure of the Sukkah and the Schach, we began with the Mishnah that deals with the obligation to sit in a Sukkah. 

6- We observed that the Mishnah begins not with ‘who and when’ one is obligated to sit in a Sukka but with the negative, of who is not obligated to do so and also that eating or drinking ארעי is permitted outside the Sukkah!

7- We spoke about the העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה.  

Pin on End-Time Battle for the Temple Mount

This too is a wide ranging topic we will BL”N continue learning about. 

Here are the points we began to discuss:

A- The two opinions if one has the ability to perform both מצוות. Does he have an obligation to do so? Rashi, Tosfos and the Ran. 

B- Assuming it applies only to when he can only do one, then why would we need a פסוק to teach us that one needs to continue to perform Mitzvah A and not drop it and switch to Mitzvah B? Why is B more important than A? 

Merav Michaeli מרב מיכאלי on Twitter: "… "

C- Why did Rebbi, who organized the Mishnayos, wait until מסכת סוכה, to write this Halachah? Why not in מסכת פסחים that precedes סוכה?  


Shiur Sukkah 24a-b 07/27/21


Suka 24a-b

Menachem Av 18, 7581. July 27, 2021

1- We concluded the סוגיא  of Breira and continued. 

The Gemore reverses itself and states another reason Reb Meir says that one cannot use an animal as a Sukkah wall.  It’s (not because the animal may die or run away, but) because the definition of a מחיצה is something made of a material that humans can construct. Such as stone…Old Stone Wall – decorate with a wall mural – Photowall

or wood.

Old Wooden Wall Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Free Image. Image 11087641.

That criterion excludes a wall made from animal.

Global Animals Wallpaper | Wallsauce US

2- The Gemore continues explaining the end of the Beraisa where Reb Yosi HaGlili says that one cannot write a divorce on an animal. 

[In passing, we spoke about the Tosafos in Shabbos 152b, mentioned a few Shiurim ago, that the we find in Shas case studies of Halachos that are far fetched] 

Our Gemara goes back and forth trying to explain the reasoning of Reb Yosi HaGlili and the opposing opinion of the  חכמים that allow such a גט. 

At one point the Gemore says that ‘one would think’ that just as with קידושין,  to get married, one gives his bride כסף, similarly, one can divorce a wife with כסף! 

Thirty pieces of silver | Life-Giving Water

Rashi explains that in theory it would work with the husband giving his wife  כסף. 

The Sfas Emes differs and says that logic would say that it would be the woman giving the husband כסף. 

Why? When the marriage begins, the husband in a sense ‘buys’ her, with the כסף making the קנין. 

When the divorce occurs, she is ‘buys’ herself back from him, therefore she needs to ‘pay’ her husband. 

For Thirty Pieces of Silver. – Snyder's Soapbox

3- We mentioned the Rosh Yeshivaת in 770 for many years, Reb Yisroel Piekarski. 

In his Shiurim would always he mentioned his illustrious Rebbe, Reb Arye Fromer, known as the Kozlogover Rov, who became the Rosh Yeshiva of the Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin after the passing of Reb Meir Shapiro.  See a biography here. 

In one of his shiurim Rabbi Piekarski said that his Rebbe had a novel idea to explain the concept of חופה. As we know, the marriage is a two step process. 

Rabbi Piekarski at Kinus Torah in 770 in 5734/1974

First the קנין, which is usually done with כסף. The second is the couple living as one union in a home. 

This second part is symbolized by the חופה with the bride and groom standing under one canopy and then entering the חדר יחוד. 

But Rav says (Kesubos 3a) חופה can accomplish both step simultaneously. 

The קנין and “living as one”. 

How does חופה create a קנין? Suggests the Kozlogover Rov, that it acts like a חצר. 

Boy Pulling Cow Stock Photo - Download Image Now - iStock

And just as one is קונה an animal by bringing it into his חצר, similarly one is קונה his wife with חופה – חצר……..

4- Our Gemore discusses the idea that the Torah calls the גט a ספר כריתות. Book of disengagement. 

Does it mean it needs to be written on paper or parchment or any material works? 

שטר גט- וואדג’אן מרוקו ת”ש

In general – what does ספר mean? 

We mentioned in passing the famous case brought to the נודע ביהודה about a dispute of an estate. 

In short – a father wrote in his will that he is gifting to one of his sons “half my house and my ספרים’. Included in his collection of ספרים, was  a ספר תורה. 

After his passing the other brother claimed that the ספר תורה was not included in his father’s gift since ספרים means only printed books! 

See here – the נודע ביהודה shrugs of this reasoning

נודע ביהודה מג ,חושן משפט, מהדורה תנינא – 

Ancient Bible scrolls to go on exhibit at New Jerusalem House of Prayer

On the contrary, he writes, the word ספר means primarily a ספר תורה. We ‘borrow’ this word and use it for printed books. 

5- Speaking of marriage and divorce, we mentioned the מאמר of the Alter Rebbe where he quotes the Midrash story of the couple that were childless and Rashbi suggested to them to get divorced. He added that this divorce should be done with the same fanfare as the wedding. 

Here is a link to the מאמר. 

We mentioned the humorous addition to this story from the Magid Sholom Shvadron about what they wrote on the invitation inviting all to the divorce party…]  

A Tzaddik A Day, Rav Sholom Schwadron Z"tl - NES 4 NOSSON

6- We spoke of the weird results of a נדר being annulled. Ran in Nedorim, 85a. To be continued. 

דהתנן המקדש האשה על תנאי שאין עליה או עליו נדרים ונמצאו עליה או עליו נדרים אינה מקודשת ומדקתני אינה מקודשת משמע שאינה מקודשת כלל ויכולה להנשא לאחר אע”ג דתניא התם הלכה אצל חכם והתירה וכן הוא שהלך אצל חכם והתירו מקודשת אלמא אע”ג דמצי מיתשיל וחיילי קדושי למפרע כל אימת דלא מיתשיל לא חיישינן דלמא מיתשיל

7 – We ended off with the Tosafos that mentions the story of Tamar who was the daughter of שם the son of נח. 

בראשית רבה פה, י

אפרים מקשאה תלמידו של רבי מאיר אמר משום רבי מאיר תמר בתו של שם היתה דכתיב (ויקרא כא) ובת איש כהן לפיכך הוציאוה ותשרף

As a few pointed out, if one makes the calculation, Tamar, who married both of Yehuda’s sons was older that Yehuda himself!


Shiur Sukkah 23b-24a 07/20/21


Sukkah 23b-24a

Menachem Av 11, 7581. July 20, 2021

Some notes on Breirah ברירה. Retroactive choice. See here from Google. 


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One who purchases wine from among the Samaritans and there is reason to suspect that teruma and tithes were not taken, and he is not in a position to separate teruma, he acts as follows. If there are one hundred log of wine in the barrels, he says: 

Two log that I will separate in the future are teruma, as the mandated average measure of teruma is one-fiftieth or 2%; 

Korach: Terumah & Maaser | Everyday Jewish Living | OU Life

ten log are first tithe or 10% ; and 

a tenth of the remainder, or 10%, which is nine log, are second tithe. 

And he deconsecrates the second tithe that he will separate in the future, transferring its sanctity to money, and he may drink the wine immediately, relying on the separation that he will perform later. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.

Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosi and Rabbi Shimon prohibit one from doing so. 

2- According to the conclusion of the גמרא, the argument is whether this sort of giving תרומה ומעשרות has any validity at all. Or, using the term of the גמרא:

?יש ברירה, או אין ברירה. 

We discussed the following:

A- If you say יש ברירה  it works, and one can drink the wine immediately, relying on his separating תרומה ומעשרות at a later time, when he reaches close to the bottom of the barrel. 

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See here the story of Rabban Gamliel on the ship.

If eventually he does not separate  this תרומה ומעשרות, [either  by drinking to the end of the barrel or if the barrel breaks] it is then retroactively acknowledged that there was no  תרומה ומעשרות given and this poor chap simply drank טבל. 

טעויות בהפרשת תרומות ומעשרות מיין | מכון התורה והארץ-'למעשה' אקטואליה הלכתית


B- If אין ברירה, it means that such a method of giving תרומה ומעשרות does not work.

OK. So what happens if a person does utter such words (2% Truma, 10% Maser and another 10% Meser Sheini)?

What happens with this barrel? 

Have You Ever 'Scraped the Bottom of the Barrel?' | Engoo

We discussed that this is a מחלוקת of the ראשונים if we say that since אין ברירה nothing happened and it’s still טבל.

Or, it does take effect. Meaning that his words did indeed create תרומה ומעשרות, it’s in the barrel somewhere, but since ,אין ברירה, we cannot know where in the barrel it is! 

Consequently, only a Kohen can drink from it! 

Reb Elchanan (Beitzah 35) has an interesting explanation as to why if יש ברירה and the barrel breaks it is deemed טבל,  and if אין ברירה we say that it is mixed תרומה ומעשרות.

3- We spoke about the rare expression in Tosfos. The question they ask is as follows: if one starts with 100 gallons and takes out 2 gallons for תרומה there are 98 gallons left. The next step of giving 10% of the remainder to a לוי would result in 9.8 gallons only. Not 10 gallons. Yet the Mishna says ’10 gallons to the Levi’? 

The simple answer is that the Mishna rounded the numbers.

.Tosafos writes that some say that one indeed needs to give the Levi a full 10 gallons! Why? Because in theory one doe not need to give 2% for תרומה. 

מן התורה   even one drop of wine is sufficient. So the Levi is owed a full 10 gallons. Therefore the Mishna states ‘10 gallons’ to the Levi. 

Tosafos categorically rejects this explanation: ‘This is totally incorrect’.  זה לא יתכן מכלל. Tosafos offers no explanation as to why not. 

We discussed the ריטב”א as to what Tosafos’s reason is. 

4- Reb Yehudah, who generally assumes that לא חיישינן למיתה, nevertheless says that on Yom Kippur, the כהן גדול, who needs to be married to do the עבודה, prepares another wife ‘waiting’ to become his wife if his current wife dies. 

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The גמרא offers an explanation: מעלה עשו בכפרה. Meaning that Yom Kippur being the day of  כפרה results in taking extra precautions (מיתה)  that ordinarily we are not concerned with. 

We mentioned the Tosafos ישנים at the beginning of Yuma that writes that this entire idea of the Kohen Gadol being married is not מעכב. If he does the avodah and is single, it’s fine. 

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Yet, כפרה is so important that we go out of our way (according to Reb Yehuda) and arrange this ‘second’ wife in order to ensure proper כפרה if the needs arrives. 

Rabbi Yoel Kahn Sandek at Bris

We mentioned R’ Yoel A”H:

The elderly Rosh Yeshiva  asks the “new” bochur his name:

‘My name is Chaim Lipkin and I’m not a grandson of Reb Yisroel Slanter.’

‘Ver hot ba dir gefregt?!!’.  

Shiur Sukkah 23b 7/13/21


Sukkah 23b

Menachem Av 4, 7581. July 13, 2021

1- We discussed the concept of חזקת חיים. It’s an offshoot of the general idea of חזקה. Meaning status quo. 

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If something is observed at a particular time, can we assume that it remains unchanged? If this object is unattended or not observed, how long can we take it for granted that it has not changed? 

We fill a Mikvah with 40 סאה. No doubt that the water will eventually evaporate. Until we check the water level can we assume that the original 40 are still intact?

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A married man leaves on a trip. How long can we assume that he still living? If he is a Cohen married to an Yisraelis, thus allowing her to eat תרומה, can she continue to eat the תרומה on the assumption that he is still alive? 


2- There is a thought about the above case from Reb Yehuda Aszod. Known by his famous book שו”ת מהר”י אסאד. See here


His point is that this woman has two :חזקות – 

1- That her husband is till alive.

2-   חזקת אוכלת בתרומה.


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A few years ago we related a  fascinating story about Reb Yehuda Aszod. As he didn’t never allowed himself to be photographed, when he passed away some of his students propped him up and snapped a picture of him.  Their reason was that their goal was to donate the funds from the sale of this unique portrait to his unmarried daughters. 


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Some say that these ‘machers’ didn’t do that well after this incident. ר”ל.

3- Another case our Gemore brings is if a person gives his wife a גט now, but on the condition that it will only become valid ‘one hour before I pass away’. 

So if he passes away, say in a month from now, at 12 PM, the divorce occurs at 11 AM. 


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So technically, the wife is constantly in limbo. 

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What is she now? Married or divorced?

Well. No one knows now, but we will know in hour from now!

If he survives the next hour, she was still married. If he passes away, say at 2 PM, she was divorced at 1 PM. 

Can she eat Truma now? If we follow the חזקת חיים , she can. That is because we assume that he will indeed live for the next hour. If we don’t, חייש למיתה, she cannot. 

4- Question of the רש”ש: A Kohen who give his wife such a Get (  a גט now, but on the condition that it will become valid ‘one hour before I pass away’), how can he live with her at anytime? Perhaps he will pass away within the next hour. This triggers the Get to an hour before that….causing the Kohen to live with a גרושה !!!

5- We discussed the topics of טבל and תרומה. 

טבל  – Produce that is in its original form. No תרומה or מעשר has been taken from it. Prohibited from eating it. 

תרומה Produce that has been taken from טבל. Prohibited from eating it except a Kohen. 


טבל – ויקיפדיה

What is the איסור of טבל and תרומה?

We discussed the famous Rashi Yevomos 86b that says the reason for the prohibition to eat טבל is because it has (the potential) תרומה inside of it. 

The question asked is, if so, why can’t a Kohen eat טבל? Reb Yosef Engel and Reb Elchanan discuss it. 

(Yevamos 86a, Rashi, and Tosafos “Ma Toveles”, and R’ Y Engel, Asvun D’oraisa, klal 2 here)

Similar question now in regards to תרומה. Is the איסור of Truma the ‘remnants’ of טבל?

The fact that an Yisroel cannot eat תרומה is because to him the טבל prohibition is is still there or is it a new איסור called תרומה. 

To be continued.  

6- We began to discuss the sugya of ברירה.