Shiur Sukkah 37b 05/11/22

BS”D

Sukkah 37b

Iyar 9, 5782. May 11, 2022

1- We continued with the topic having direct contact to the Lulav with out any חציצה. 

Mentioned the רמ”א that says it’s preferable that one remove his Tefillin (and ring) before shaking the lulav since the רצועות on his palm or finger  will be a חציצה. OC 651, 7. In regards to Tefillin, he was referring to the  מנהג אשכנז to don them on חול המועד.  

אם עשה בית יד ונתן בו הלולב ונטלו, שפיר דמי, דלקיחה ע”י דבר אחר שמה לקיחה, ובלבד שיהא דרך כבוד; אבל אם אינו דרך כבוד, כגון שנתן הלולב בכלי, ונטלו, לא יצא; ואם כרך עליו סודר, ונטלו או שכרך סודר על ידו, ונטלו, י”א דלא יצא:

הגה – ונהגו להחמיר להסיר התפילין (מהרי”ל) וטבעות מידם, אבל מדינא אין לחוש הואיל ואין כל היד מכוסה בהן (אגודה פ’ מקום שנהגו):


[Note: The full Chapter # 651 in the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch did not reach us]. 

Jewish Orthodox Boy Tefillin Hadas Myrtle Stock Photo 1416161933 | Shutterstock

2- Loose leaves inside the ‘bouquet’ of the Lulav. Whether from the הדסים or ערבות or loose branches of the Lulav itself. The Halacha is that it is not a problem since מין במינו אינו חוצץ.

Lulav Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | Shutterstock

3 –  A lefty, switches and holds the Lulav in his left hand according to Ashkenazim as the Ramo writes. Sephardim follow the Shulchan Aruch and a lefty does  not switch hands.  OC 651, 3.

Should You Become a Switch Hitter? | SportRx

4- What about an ambidextrous person? See above that he takes the Lulav in his right hand. 

What Are Tefillin? - Tefillin

Ambidextrous

We mentioned the Machlokes about a Kohen who is ambidextrous. A lefty Kohen cannot do the עבודה. But what if he has equal use of both hands? 

Blessings from Heaven Through the Priestly Blessing | Hoshana Rabbah BlogHoshana Rabbah Blog

Mishna בכורות ז, ו.

וְהַשּׁוֹלֵט בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו – רְבִּי פּוֹסֵל, וַחֲכָמִים מַכְשִׁירִין. 

The Gemore explains the reasoning for these two opinions. 

Rebi says that such a Kohen has a weak right hand. Meaning he is a double lefty.
The Chachamim say on the contrary, an ambidextrous person has a strong left hand. 

5- The Gemara discusses the smelling of the הדס or the Esrog on Yom Tov. 

See here that both are prohibited. The TA”Z adds that ‘those that smell the Esrog when holding it are practicing a מנהג שטות!’

Lulav Stock Photos, Royalty Free Lulav Images | Depositphotos

6- We spoke about the smelling of items that are אסור בהנאה. Mentioned the ראשונים that make a distinction between items that are made for scenting, such as בשמים versus items that are made primarily for eating such a bread. 

Read the text of the Shach (YD 108, 13) that does not accept this distinction and prohibits the smelling of all איסורים. 

PETER LUGER STEAK HOUSE, Brooklyn - Williamsburg - Menu, Prices & Restaurant Reviews - Tripadvisor

The Alter Rebbe accepts his opinion and writes that on Pesach one should not inhale the scent of Chometz from a non Jew

A man sweeps outside a bakery, New York, NY, USA, 1996 by Steve McCurry | Ocula

7- The Gemore discusses smelling an Esrog or הדס on Shabbos while it is still attached to the tree. 

Corsican Citron - Oscar Tintori - Nurseries Worldwide - Citrus Plants

Rashi says that biting into a fruit when it is still on the tree is ‘the epitome of תולש ‘. We discussed if this is מדאורייתא or מדרבנן since is not the usual way one picks fruit off a tree.

604 Bite Apple Tree Photos - Free & Royalty-Free Stock Photos from Dreamstime

See מגן אברהם   

336,11. 

Alter Rebbe:

The Gemore in Shabbos says that writing with one’s mouth is שלא כדרך and not considered writing. We mentioned the query of Reb Zvi Pesach Frank who discusses ‘speaking into a phonograph if that is considered writing’. 

Edison Speaks Into a Phonograph, 1888 | PBS LearningMedia

See here

8- We began the next Mishna concerning נענועים. 

More on this next week. 

9 – Story of the פריץ telling his Yid friend who was allowed by his קהילה to blow the Shofer only after נעילה

  !!אז דו האלסט שוין דעם שופר –  בלאז’. 

Yom Kippur 2018: How is Yom Kippur celebrated? When does the day end? - Mirror Online

10 Story of the Rebbe’s painting and it’s aftermath, from an Indian’s office to 15th floor in Rockefeller Center. There has been a sighting. 

Shiur Sukkah 37a 05/03/22

BSD

Suka 37a

1- We finished discussing the opinion of Reb Yehudah that one must use the ד’ מינים for the Schach. So evergreen and bamboo cannot be used. 

Wall Mural BAMBOO WALL - PIXERS.US

The Difference Between Evergreens and Conifers

But how can one use an Esrog for סכך? An Esrog is a fruit and is מקבל טומאה? Answers of the כפות תמרים (it refers to the wood of the tree) and  ערוך לנר   (using an Esrog that was not  מוכשר לקבל טומאה).

These 7 citrus tree varieties will make a great addition to your yard | HappySprout

2- The next piece of Gemore touches upon two big topics of חציצה and נטילה על ידי דבר אחר. The opinions of Rabah and Rava. 

3 – חציצה. 

Are the rings that bind the Lulav considered a חציצה? Meaning that the hand of the Lulav holder is not actually touching the Lulav. Just as a חציצה in regards to טבילה that does not allow the water to touch the skin under a band aid. 

How to tie your Lulav - YouTube

Rabbah says one must hold the Lulav directly. The rings must be placed a bit higher to allow the hand to touch the actual Lulav. Even though the rings are made from the Lulav leaves, and it is מין במינו, Raba does not allow it. 

Rava says that since rings add beauty the Lulav, it is בטל to the Lulav and therefore not considered a חציצה. 

4 – נטילה על ידי דבר אחר. 

Gloves - Torah Musings

Holding the Lulav with a towel or scarf. 

Rabbah says one must hold the Lulav directly. Rava says that it is OK. 

Is that the same concept as חציצה ? Or perhaps since the scarf is on one’s hand it is to be viewed as a glove – an extension of the hand and perhaps not considered a חציצה. The only issue is that one is holding the Lulav על ידי דבר אחר.

We discussed the ראשונים on this topic. 

5- In general, the idea of doing a Mitzvah על ידי דבר אחר , is a wide topic. 

Some examples discussed:

  • A Dayan needs to hear a יבמה say that the יבם does not want to marry her. What if this Dayan is hard of hearing and can only hear with a horn that amplifies the sound? Is that שמיעה על ידי דבר אחר?

The History of Hearing Aid Technology

We mentioned the Tzemach Tzedek that discusses this. Here

  • One must be able to hear the מלך speak at the הקהל gathering. If not, he is פטור. Will a horn work? A hearing aid?
  • Mitzvos that need to be seen – like the עדים witnessing the קידושין. Can they wear glasses to see the חתן כלה? Through a glass window? A telescope from a mile away? 

Unrecognizable female hiker with trekking stick looking through binocular telescope while standing on green meadow near

6- Rava’s words (something that adds beauty cannot be considered a חציצה) was the basis of the huge מחלוקת of previous generations regarding the parchment of a Sefer Torah that was ‘shmeared’, coated with a thin white film to make the surface smooth and uniform. 

Sefer Torah Shmeared with log

See here Ben Ish Chai, Torah Leshma, 243:

[Mentioned that if you ever pick up an old Sefer Torah and it seems very heavy it probably has the coat that was applied to it, adding many pounds]. 

The logic to allow it is, based on the Rovo above, that since this film adds beauty to the קלף is is בטל to it. 

פנים מאירות ג, לב. 

The Rabbonim that prohibited it claimed that this glazed film applied to the parchment was not בטל to the Sefer Torah and the letters written are on the film and not ‘on’ the Torah. 

 

Shiur Sukkah 36b -37a 04/26/22

BS”D

Sukkah 36b -37A

Nisan 25 5782. April 26, 2022

1- We concluded the last piece of Gemara before starting the next Mishna where it relates the story of Reb Akiva walking into shul ‘with a large esrog on his shoulder’. 

20 Etrog Fresh RARE Seeds Giant Yemenit Citron Citrus Medica Israel Kosher for sale online | eBay | Rare seeds, Etrog, Kosher

As the Alter Rebbe writes: ‘There is no upper limit to the size of an esrog, even if it needs to be carried on your shoulders it is kosher”

Alter Rebbe 648: 29 

2- Having concluded the Halachos of the ד’ מינים the next Mishna discusses the binding of the Lulav, Hadasim and Arovos. 

There are two general issues:

A – The type material to bind it with. If it’s not from the ד’ מינים, is it בל תוסיף? 

B –  Is the binding material considred a חציצה. 

What to do about naked palm tree roots and the mysterious nightlife of the opossum – Press Enterprise

As we learnt previously, Reb Yehuda says that it is a חיוב to bind the Lulav together with the הדסים and ערבות. The reason for this is חיוב, is that  otherwise it lacks a proper , לקיחה as it says ולקחתם לכם. 

Since Reb Yehuda designates this binding as a חיוב then the material used to bind is ‘important’ it cannot be anything else other than from the ד’ מינים itself. Using a string or twine would constitute בל תוסיף. 

How to Bind the Lulav Bundle - Sukkot & Simchat Torah

According to the Rabbanan that binding is only a Mitzvah to adorn and beautify the Lulav bundle, the material used has no importance in itself. The binding is only לנוי. Thus, any material can be used. 

Sukkot Charm: Lulav, 4 colors, click to view

3- The Gemara introduces another opinion of Reb Yehuda that the סכך must be of the ד’ מינים as well. 

Discussed the logic of this ruling. 

When comparing סוכה to the ד’ מינים, which is ‘weightier’? Which one carries more importance? 

We spoke in the past about a scenario of one having to choose to either earring in a Suka or shaking the Lulav. 

Here we are talking about the actual מצוה. Which is more important? Reb Yehuda claims it is the Suka since its obligation starts right at the onset of Sukkos. The  ד’ מינים begin only after sunrise on the first day. 

5 sukkahs to visit in Israel this Sukkot-including Reuven Rivlin's

Additionally, say the Rashash, Suka is a חיוב 24/7 versus the Lulav that picking it up for a fleeting moment is all one needs. 

See previous Shiur, question of the Pri Megadim, choosing Sukkah or Lulav.

Jewish Sunrise Prayers At The Western Wall, Israel 10 Photograph by Jeffrey Worthington

4 – Reb Yehuda brings proof that the סכך needs to be of the species of the ד’  מינים from a Pasuk in Ezra. But this verse is actually in Nechemia! 

See previous shiur.

Nach Metzudos - Daniel / Ezra / Nechemia | Eichlers

Discussed (again) the fact that the Gemore quotes a פסוק  from נחמיה but states that it is in ספר עזרא. This is due to a ‘fault’ by  נחמיה. As the Gemara relates in Sanhedrin נחמיה was punished that his Sefer is not named after him. 

We added that the חיד”א  says that since nowadays נחמיה is indeed,  not attached to עזרא, but labeled printed as a stand alone ספר [albeit, some say it was split from עזרא by a non-Jewish printer], it perhaps shows that נחמיה was forgiven and merited to have his own ספר. 

 

See here

 

For more on this topic, see what we found on line here

Shiur Sukkah 36a-b, 03/29/22

BSD

Sukkah 36a-b 

2nd Adar 27, 5782. March 29, 2022

1- We find in a ברייתא various types of unusual Esrogim with issues. 

The first one we discussed is כבוש. Meaning the Esrog was soaked in a liquid for a 24 hour period. The rule is כבוש כמבושל. Soaking or pickling is considered as if it was cooked, which in our case would cause the Esrog to be פסול.

Adventures in etrog jam

We mentioned the חתם סופר that derives from this that placing the Lulav in a vase filled with water for 24 hours would cause it to be כמבושל and invalid. Others disagree and say that only a food item can be considered כמבושל. The Lulav, Hadasim and Aravos are merely branches and twigs and this rule would not apply to them.

אתרוג מנומר פסול – 2

Spotted like a leopard. 

Leopard Spots Photograph by Wes and Dotty Weber

We read another interesting חתם סופר that brings up the issue of spots that appear on an Esrog as a result of many people touching it. Is this considered הדר ? 

Esrog High Resolution Stock Photography and Images - Alamy

His expression is interesting: ונ”ל דאכתי הוי הדר, כיון שבאו ע”י מצותו, וזהו הודו והדרו.

Despite the discoloration it is still considered a  הדר since this has been caused by many Mitzvos. That is a true הדר.

 

Here are two interesting links submitted by Mendel Nemanov. Thanks.

From the Rebbe. Others

3 – Esrog that while developing on the tree was placed in a form and produced a non Esrog- like shape. פסול. 

Zev Sero pointed out the funny looking Esrogim that were used in India. See here, and here .

4 – Our Gemara relates the Minhag of Reb Chanina on the last days of Sukkos he would cut a piece of  the Esrog and eat it. We discussed the issue of חסר and הדר. 

Save the etrog! Keep the joy of Sukkot alive! | The Jewish Star | www.thejewishstar.com

5 – The Gemara then brings in the case of an Esrog that mice bit into. Again, a lack of  חסר and הדר. 

6- We spoke a bit about Reb Avrohom Abele Gombiner who is know for his monumental work on the Shulchan Aruch, the מגן אברהם. 

We repeated a fascinating idea from him.

ערבי נחל מג”א לא עברתי ממצותיך ולא שכחתי

https://beta.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=19050&st=&pgnum=481

In short, one of the 613 Mitzvos is for all to come to the Beis Hamikdosh in years 4 and 7 of the Shmira to declare that all his Trumos and Ma’aser were given. 

B He then says: לא עברתי ממצותיך ולא שכחתי. 

What does not forgetting have to do with giving away the Trumos and Ma’aser? 

Says the Mogen Avrohom that the Yerushalmi relates an interesting story with Reb Pinchos ben Yair:

רִבִּי פִינְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אֲזַל לְחַד אֲתַר אֲתוּן לְגַבֵּיהּ אָֽמְרוּן לֵיהּ עַכְבָּרָיָא אֲכַל עִיבּוּרָן. גָּזַר עֲלֵיהֹן וְצַמְתּוּן שָׁרוּן מְצַפְצְפִין אֲמַר לוֹן יָֽדְעִין אַתּוּן מַה אִינּוּן אָֽמְרִין אָֽמְרוּ לֵיהּ לָא. אֲמַר לוֹן אָֽמְרוּ דְּלָא מְתַקְּנָא. אָֽמְרוּ לֵיהּ עוֹרְבָן וְעָֽרְבוֹן וְלָא אַנְכּוּן.

Rebbi Phineas ben Yaïr went to a place where they139The farmers of that place. came to him and said, rats are eating our grain. He commanded them140The rats.; they assembled and started to whistle. He asked them, do you understand what they are saying? They said, no. He said to them, they say that it is not put in order. They said to him, be our guarantor. He promised141That the rats would leave if all tithes were taken. It is implied that the townspeople complied and correctly gave all heave and tithes. and they had no further losses.

So not giving Maa’ser properly causes mice to attack the produce.

How to Store Food to Avoid Attracting Rodents · ExtermPRO

Now the Gemara in Horios 13b says that one who eats food that mice have bitten into forgets his learning.

ת”ר חמשה דברים משכחים את הלימוד האוכל ממה שאוכל עכבר וממה שאוכל חתול והאוכל לב של בהמה והרגיל בזיתים והשותה מים של שיורי רחיצה והרוחץ רגליו זו על גבי זו ויש אומרים אף המניח כליו תחת מראשותיו חמשה דברים משיבים את הלימוד פת פחמין וכל שכן פחמין עצמן והאוכל ביצה מגולגלת בלא מלח והרגיל בשמן זית והרגיל ביין ובשמים והשותה מים של שיורי עיסה ויש אומרים אף הטובל אצבעו במלח ואוכל

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: There are five factors that cause one to forget his Torah study: One who eats from that which a mouse eats and from that which a cat eats, and one who eats the heart of an animal, and one who is accustomed to eating olives, and one who drinks water that remains from washing, and one who washes his feet with this foot atop that foot. And some say: Also one who places his garments under his head. Correspondingly, there are five factors that restore forgotten Torah study: Eating bread baked on coals and all the more so one who warms himself with the heat of the coals themselves, and one who eats a hard-boiled egg [beitza megulgelet] without salt, and one who is accustomed to eating olive oil, and one who is accustomed to drinking wine and smelling spices, and one who drinks water that remains from kneading dough. And some say: Also one who dips his finger in salt and eats it.

Is there any medical treatment through which a person can forget a bad memory? - Quora

So concludes the Mogen Avrohom, that is the meaning of the Posuk- I gave all my Ma’aser, therefore I do not have mice problems and my food does not cause me to forget!!!

Sources:

ערבי נחל מג״א  לא עברתי ממצותיך ולא שכחתי

https://beta.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=19050&st=&pgnum=

ירושלמי   https://www.sefaria.org/Jerusalem_Talmud_Demai.1.3.12?ven=The_Jerusalem_Talmud,_translation_and_commentary_by_Heinrich_W._Guggenheimer._Berlin,_De_Gruyter,_1999-2015&vhe=The_Jerusalem_Talmud,_edition_by_Heinrich_W._Guggenheimer._Berlin,_De_Gruyter,_1999-2015&lang=bi

 

 

Shiur Sukkah 35b (2) 03/23/22

BSD

Suka 35b (2)

2nd Adar 19, 5782. March 23, 2022

1- In continuation of last week’s discussion concerning  an Esrog from דמאי,  (#s 3 & 4)  and about being מפקיר ones assets we brought up the topic of הפסד מרובה; Great monetary loss. 

European court ruling brings kosher slaughterhouse new business amid old fears | The Times of Israel

We find numerous times in Halacha the allowing of a leniency in order to avoid a great monetary loss. 

This is a wide ranging topic and we mentioned that some say that the entire Halacha of מוקצה can be overridden when there is a הפסד מרובה. Note: That is not the practical Halocho as the Alter Rebbe writes. 334, 2. 

2- We discussed that הפסד מרובה. In  general it  is relative to the financial level of the owner of the object(s) in question. A person that is well to do has a higher bar to reach before the הפסד מרובה leniency kicks in. 

File:A 95 year old woman with her pet rooster, Havana, Cuba.jpg - Wikimedia Commons

We spoke about the question posed to the שואל ומשיב Rabbi of Lvov /  Lemberg.  (today being bombarded and called Lviv). 

HebrewBooks.org Sefer Detail: הגדה של פסח דברי שאול -- נתנזון, יוסף שאול ב"ר אריה ליבוש הלוי

Can a wealthy person, who cannot use this היתר simply because he indeed has no ‘great loss’, gift it to a poorer person? Interesting question. See here that his question begins with the קטניות on Pesach issue.

 

3 – Discussed the הדר  of the Esrog. 

Rashi writes that the area of the Esrog that is of prime importance to be הדר  is from the widest diameter to it’s ‘nose’ – where the פיטום is.  He adds ‘that is the area where the eyes of a person land more than the rest of the Esrog’ 

What can also be derived from this Rashi is that any blemish on the Esrog that cannot be seen with the naked eye is not a פסול. So no magnifying glass is needed…….

An Ultra-Orthodox Jew uses a magnifying glass to examine an etrog, a citron, one of the four species used during the festival of Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles, in Jerusalem, October 5,

4- Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder.

Dried etrog citron with the pitam still attached | Basically… | Flickr

And also of the circumstances. So if a year produces unsightly Esrogim, which under normal circumstances would be close to being פסול, one must use the nicest one of that year. And that is הדר!!!

Conversely, using such an Esrog in years of beautiful אתרוגים , is not הדר at all and should not be used. 

This concept is expounded by the אור שמח. Lulav 8, 7. 

ולדעתי נראה דלא מיבעי פסולי הדר שכתב רבינו אשר דהתורה מסרה אותן לחכמים ואם אין כאן אחר איהו הוי הדר ובאמת ענין הידור ויופי הוא מן המוסכמות ולכן באתרוג הכושי אמר הא לן הא להו ודאי דכשר אם אין באפשר להשיג אחר ההדר

5 – In jest we spoke about the שליח בית דין  walking around with a frying pan and three eggs. Attend the shiur for an explanation…..

 

Shiur Sukkah 35b – Purim 03/15/22

BS”D

Sukkah 35b- Purim 

2nd Adar 12, 5782. March 15, 2022

1- Continued the topic of the need for the Esrog to be edible. היתר אכילה. 

Caution: Don't Eat Esrog

2- Our Gemara states that to be יוצא the מצוה of Matzah it needs to be לכם. Meaning that it needs to belong to the eater. 

We discussed the issue of eating the Pesach סדר as a guest and the the host gives you his Matzah. Does it belong to you at the time of eating it?

It’s a big topic as to ownership of food given to a guest. 

We began with the רמ”א (EE 28, 17) who writes that ‘if a guest uses his portion of food to be מקדש a woman she is מקודשת’! The Shulchan Aruch disagrees.   See Taz there and many others. 

הנכנס לבית חבירו ולקח לו כלי או אוכל וכיוצא בהם וקידש בו אשה, ובא בעל הבית אע”פ שאמר לו למה לא נתת לה דבר זה שהוא טוב ממה שנתת לה אינה מקודשת. שלא אמר לו דבר זה אלא כדי שלא להתבייש עמו, והואיל וקידש בממון חבירו שלא מדעת חבירו הרי זה גזל ואינה מקודשת, ואם קדשה בדבר שאין בעל הבית מקפיד עליו כגון תמרה או אגוז ה”ז מקודשת מספק:

הגה אורח שיושב אצל ב”ה ונוטל חלקו וקידש בו הוי מקודשת (הגהות אלפסי):

One who enters his fellow’s house and takes a dish, a piece of food or something like this and uses it to betroth a woman, and then the homeowner comes, even if he says to him: Why didn’t you give her this thing that is better than the thing you gave her, she is not betrothed, for he said this only so that the other wouldn’t be embarrassed. And since he betrothed her using his friend’s property without his friend’s acknowledgment, behold he has stolen and she is not betrothed. But if he betrothed her with something that the homeowner doesn’t really care about, like a date or a nut, behold she is doubtfully betrothed. Hagah: A guest who is sitting with a homeowner [dining], and he takes his portion [of food] and uses it to betroth [her], behold she is betrothed [Hagahot Alfasi].

We mentioned the tragic story in Chulin 94a (below) that seems to show that a  guest’s food is not considered theirs.

ומעשה באחד שזמן ג’ אורחין

In Shulchan Aruch OC 170,19, it says that a guest should not offer the food to his host children lest it may embarrass the host.

אורחים הנכנסין אצל בעל הבית אינם רשאים ליטול מלפניהם וליתן לבנו או לעבדו של בעל הבית אלא אם כן נטלו רשות מבעל הבית:

Does this imply that the guest’s food does not belong to the guest? 

Abraham, Sarah & Guests 24" x 24" - Richard McBee Artist and Writer

3 –  The Gemara discusses using an Esrog of דמאי which is one that we are unsure if מעשר  was given. Obviously, we are talking about a case where there is no option of giving מעשר on it now. Such as if one only has this Esog and no other produce. 

Etrog Pictures, Etrog Stock Photos & Images | Depositphotos®

The rule of the דמאי is that under certain circumstances we are lenient and allow the use and eating of דמאי. For example – a poor person. The חכמים allowed him to eat דמאי produce without the need to give מעשר on it. 

The Gemara says that בית הלל allows everyone, poor or wealthy, the use of an Esrog from דמאי. 

Masbia of Flatbush

Their reason is that one can in theory be מפקיר all his assets and immediately turn  c”v into a ‘poor person’ allowing him to eat דמאי. 

4- We spoke about this concept and wondered if a person does actually do such a הפקר. He then would need to re-acquire all his assets for them to belong to him. So far so good.  

Law Concept: Newspaper Headline Null And Void On White Background, 3D Rendering Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Free Image. Image 59817174.

But what about the debts owed to him? Once he is מפקיר everything, it also includes his debts, and no one owes him anything. His loans become null. How does he re-acquire them? 

Good question. 

5- For Purim we related a cute מגילה idea from Reb Yisroel Zilberstein who comes up with brilliant ideas. 

We prefaced it with discussing the spelling of Jewish names. Generally,  לשון קודש names end with the letter ה. Like נחמה, אהבה, גילה.

Names that are not in לשון הקודש end with the letter א.  Like ביילא, זושא, שיינא.

Rebbetzin Shaina Horenstein Art Print by ChanaVoola | Society6

Sheina Horenstein

6- Speaking of  שיינא, we related the tragic story of שיינא the daughter of the פריערדיקער רבי, and her husband, who were killed in Treblinka in 1942. Although it was obvious that שיינא didn’t survive the war, nothing about her was printed during the life of  the previous  רבי. It was only in 1951 that the Rebbe (who regularly  recited קדיש for her on the second day ראש השנה) dedicated a קונטרס מאמרים in her memory. See here

The Rebbe added the information of an eye witness that was in Treblinka with שיינא and her husband Reb Menachem Mendel Horenstein.  See link above for the entire story. 

In a footnote the Rebbe writes that his father in law used to spell her name שיינא with two יודין. 

1930s Paris « Jeanne Mandello: Photographer in Exile

[In passing we mentioned that שיינא and her husband lived in Paris in the late 30’s.  They rented an apartment in the same building as that of the Rebbe. 

A famous  ‘historian’ claimed that the Rebbe was living in Paris under an assumed  name – Menachem Mendel Horonstein! 

 His error was caused by the city records showing such a person living at the same apartment building where the Rebbe lived at that time] 

7- Back to the מגילה. 

The name of חרבונא appears twice in the מגילה. The first time (1,9) as one the servants sent by אחשוורוש to bring  ושתי to his party. 

י בַּיּוֹם, הַשְּׁבִיעִי, כְּטוֹב לֵב-הַמֶּלֶךְ, בַּיָּיִן–אָמַר לִמְהוּמָן בִּזְּתָא חַרְבוֹנָא בִּגְתָא וַאֲבַגְתָא, זֵתַר וְכַרְכַּס, שִׁבְעַת הַסָּרִיסִים, הַמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת-פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. 

Erasing the Name of Haman the Wicked: The Origin of the Grogger

The second time חרבונא appears (7, 9) is when אחשוורוש is told by Ester that המן in his decree against all Jews, included her as well. In middle of the king’s anger, חרבונה suggests that ‘there is the tree that המן built upon which to hang מרדכי’ which caused the king to say ‘hang המן on the tree’. 

ט וַיֹּאמֶר חַרְבוֹנָה אֶחָד מִן-הַסָּרִיסִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ, גַּם הִנֵּה-הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר-עָשָׂה הָמָן לְמָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר-טוֹב עַל-הַמֶּלֶךְ עֹמֵד בְּבֵית הָמָן–גָּבֹהַּ, חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה; וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ, תְּלֻהוּ עָלָיו.  י וַיִּתְלוּ, אֶת-הָמָן, עַל-הָעֵץ, אֲשֶׁר-הֵכִין לְמָרְדֳּכָי; וַחֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ, שָׁכָכָה.

The Midrash says that this second appearance was actually אליהו הנביא who appeared to look like חרבונה. 

 What is the source for this מדרש? 

Says Reb Yisroel, simple. 

Look at the difference in the spelling of חרבונא. The first is spelled חרבונא  ending with an אלף. The second time around it’s spelled חרבונה ending with a ה. 

The reason is that the first time were referring to a goy, and as above (5), non Hebrew names end with an אלף. The second time it refers to אליהו הנביא, and therefore it ends with a ה!!

למה פעם אחת כתוב באות אלף ופעם באות הא? בספר בית שמואל דן לעניין
כתיבת שמות בגיטין האם לכתוב ב”א” או ב”ה” וכתב ששם הקודש כותבים
ב”ה” ושם חול ב”א” ומעתה שמו של סריס זה הוא חול כיון שהיה נכרי ועל כן
נכתב ב”א” אבל בפרק ז’ אמרו חז”ל שזה היה אליהו הנביא שהופיע בדמות
חרבונא וא”כ הרי זה שם קודש ולכן נכתב באות “ה”.

Purim at Sha'ar Zahav: Latkes, Hamentaschen, & Megillah, Oh My! - Sha'ar Zahav

This is the reason we say וגם חרבונה זכור לטוב. Generally, we do not praise evil people. However, the Charvona  who we honor with a mention is the חרבונה, with a ה! 

  אליהו הנביא

Happy Purim  to all. 

 

 

 

 

 

Suka 35a (2)  03/08/22

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Suka 35a (2) 

2nd Adar 5, 5782. March 8, 2022

Many interesting topics were discussed this week. Here are few. 

1- The Esrog needs to have the following : 

A –  ‘Ownership’ and B – ‘Usage’

(See discussion in previous shiur here)

Yes it's mine | Production Ready Artwork for T-Shirt Printing

A – We know that ownership is a must, ולקחתם לכם, at least on the first day. The Esrog must belong to its user 100%. Borrowing or renting is insufficient. 

Additionally, owning must mean that there is a monetary value to it. An item that is worthless cannot be considered fully ‘owned’. (see ahead more on this). 

Thus, as Esrog in the first 3 years of its planting, ערלה, which cannot be eaten and must be burned, is אסור בהנאה. It has no monetary value so in a sense it is not ‘owned’ by the owner. At least it is not a true לכם, which means ‘yours’ in the full sense of the word. 

America's Only Etrog Farmer Isn't Even Jewish - Tablet Magazine

B – Usage  – the Esrog must be edible. That too is an extension of the לכם, as Rashi phrases it: לכם, yours to use in every possible way, including the eating of it. (see ahead more on this). 

Citron whole Candied Fruit Cedro - 900 Gram - Italian Product - Frank and Sal

 

2- מעשר שני, must be brought to Yerusholayim and eaten there. Thus, an Esrog of מעשר שני, definitely passes the ‘usage’ bar. 

דף מידע על תרומות ומעשרות

But does the owner of the produce have full ownership? That is an argument between Reb Meir who says it’s ממון גבוה, and the חכמים who say it’s ממון בעלים. So according to Reb Meir, an Esrog from מעשר שני cannot be used since it lacks ownership. 

In God We Trust | Northstar Church

3 – On the topic of ownership – Items which are אסור בהנאה, like חמץ  or ערלה; one cannot use them. One cannot be מקדש  a woman with it because it has no value. But does it belong to him? Can someone just take it from the owner? 

That is a big topic. 

4- We mentioned a famous question that was posed by these three: Reb Akiva Eiger, the brother of the קצות and the Rov of Berdichev in a letter to the Alter Rebbe. 

File:Akiva Eger.jpg - Wikimedia Commons

Reb Akiva Eiger – Printed in the Vilna Shas. BK 90b. 

קצות החושן סימן ת”ו – Ketzos 406 

(ב) והפקירו קודם שעמד בדין ואחי הרב המופלג מוהר”ר יהודה כהן ש”ן הקשה בהא דאמרינן פרק החובל דף צ’ שור שהמית ואח”כ הזיק אם הוא מועד דנין אותו ד”מ ואח”כ דנין אותו דיני נפשות קדמוהו ודנוהו דיני נפשות אין חוזרין ודנין אותו דיני ממונות ופריך וכי קדמוהו ודנו אותו דיני נפשות ליהדר ולדייני אותו ד”מ ע”ש ומאי פריך הא אמרינן בכריתות (דף כ”ד) שור הנסקל שהוזמו עדיו כל הקודם וזכה בו זכה בו משום דאפקורי אפקר ליה וכיון דקדמוהו ודנו אותו דיני נפשות הרי נעשה הפקר ואיך איפשר ליהדר ולדייני דיני ממונות כיון דהפקירו קודם שהעמידו בדין ע”כ:

 נפתלי הירש מסטאנוב – Berditchev Rov, 

The Rov of Berditchev wrote a lengthy question (concerning סרכות, lesion on lungs of cows)  to the Alter Rebbe and having a bit of space at the end of the page he added this question.

 

 

 

The AR responds to the main topic of his letter and at the very end also answers this question.  

The question was concerning a  שור הנסקל, after it was sentenced, becoming איסורי הנאה, if the owners can be מפקיר it. 

Wall Street Bull' Sculptor Dies—and More Art News – ARTnews.com

The קצות,  based on many ראשונים says that איסורי הנאה does still belong 100% to the owners. No one can steal it from them. Many ראשונים say that one loses ownership to such items. 

5- The Chitas of this day begins with the words וְאִם מִנְחַת מַרְחֶשֶׁת קָרְבָּנֶךָ, סֹלֶת בַּשֶּׁמֶן תֵּעָשֶׂה . A Minchah that was brought in a deep pot.

TV chef call pan-tastic for Cookley business | Wok, Tv chefs, Wok cooking

We spoke about the popular ספר by this name. ספר מרחשת 

Written by Reb חנוך העניך אייגש one of the Rabbonim in Vilna before the war. His Sefer is a classic Yeshiva Sefer of למדות. Reb Henech was tragically killed in WW2. One of the reasons he named his Sefer מרחשת was because ‘it is very deep’….

In the first chapter of his sefer he writes at length about this topic.

איסורי הנאה אם הם שלו. 

6- B – Usage. 

The Gemara says that one must be able to have the option to eat the Esrog. As mentioned earlier that being able to eat it  is an extension of the לכם, to use in every possible way, including the eating of it. 

So an Esrog before תרומות ומעשר  were given is considered טבל. The inability to eat the Esrog since it is טבל, disqualifies such an Esrog for the Mitzvah. תוספות.

Siracusa lemon - Wikipedia

7- We discussed 2 other scenarios of an Esrog not being edible. 

1- If the Esrog became טריף. How? If it fell into a pot of חלב (fats) that is non-kosher. Or if it was soaked overnight in a liquid that is טריף.

Usable or not? 

The Mogen Avrohom 649, 20 says although some say that one cannot use such an Esrog since it is inedible, his opinion is לאו דווקא. His reasoning is that the איסור comes from an external factor. As opposed to an Esrog of ערלה for example, the איסור is מחמת עצמו. 

2- Back to the מרחשת! In Chapter 20 he discusses an Esrog that became inedible because of a סכנה! Such as a poisonous animal bit into it. Or, better yet, it was left overnight under a bed. 

Snake with an Apple Fruit in Its Mouth Stock Image - Image of copyspace, apple: 164896573

His question on this is  very interesting. The prohibition to consume food items because of a סכנה – is that a Torah איסור or a ‘human/moral’ איסור. If it’s only a moral issue, then Halachically, such an Esrog would be Kosher to use on Sukkos.   

There was more discussed and will BL”N be continued at the next shiur. 

 

 

Shiur Sukkah 35a 03/01/22

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Sukkah 35a

1st. Adar 28, 5782. March 1, 2022

We continued with the weird story discussed in the תרומת הדשן about the Esrog that was diced or sliced and sent around to a few towns. 

There is an interesting general ruling at the end of this תשובה. 

After ruling that the cutting up of an Esrog is not advisable for many reason, he concludes by saying:

‘Even if all my proofs are not valid, ruling that such an Esrog is Kosher, would be perplexing to all. And as the הגהות מיימונית writes that one is not permitted to be מתיר something that would ‘raise eyebrows’;  – “דבר התמוה לרבים”. 

Top 30 Eyebrow Raising GIFs | Find the best GIF on Gfycat

2- We diverged to the time when Reb Moshe ruled that governmental supervision is sufficient in regards to חלב ישראל. 

BUT in another place:

שו”ת אגרות משה יורה דעה חלק ב סימן לה

בדבר חלב הקאמפאניעס שבמדינתנו, … ב’ ..מנ”א תש”ל. מע”כ ידידי מוהר”ר יוסף דוד ליינער שליט”א.

בדבר חלב הקאמפאניעס שבמדינתנו שבארתי בספר אגרות משה סימן מ”ז בחיו”ד שליכא איסור חלב שחלבו עכו”ם ואין ישראל רואהו, אבל מ”מ מן הראוי לבעלי נפש להחמיר, שמטעם זה ודאי ראוי למנהלי ישיבות קטנות שיתנו להתלמידים חלב של אלו הקאמפאניעס שמעמידין ישראל לראות החליבה, ואף שהוא ביוקר מעט שלהישיבות עולה זה סך גדול במשך השנה והמצב של הישיבות דחוק בשנים אלו שבשביל זה מקילים באיזו ישיבות, מ”מ כדאי להחמיר כי גם זה הוא מעניני חינוך ולמוד שידעו שכדאי וראוי לבני תורה להחמיר אף כשיש רק חשש איסור, דמזה יתבוננו לראות איך לירא מאיסורין, וכל הוצאות הישיבה הרי הוא כדי לחנך דור נאמן לה’ ולתורתו, ומעניני חינוך אין לצמצם. אבל במקומות הרחוקות שאין שם קאמפאניעס מחלב שישראל רואהו, והוא דבר קשה מאד להשיג חלב שישראל רואה בשעת החליבה אף ליחידים אין להם להחמיר.

Was that a דבר תמוה at  the time? 

Story with the appeal for Reb Moshe’s Yeshiva and Haagen Dazs. 

Haagen-Dazs Vanilla Bean Ice Cream - Shop Ice Cream & Treats at H-E-B

3 –  The famous words of the Rambam in regards to identifying the אתרוג with the words פרי עץ הדר. Introduction to Mishna 8. From Sefaria

And we have also not found a disagreement in that which the verse states (Leviticus 23:40), “פרי עץ הדר,” such that one would say it is a citron (etrog), and the other say it is quinces or pomegranates or other [fruit] beside it. And we have also not found a disagreement about a “leafy tree” that it is [anything but] a myrtle.

זני הדרים לגינה הביתית

And when you see in the Talmud [that] they are investigating and disagreeing with one with another in the pattern of investigation and bringing proofs for one of these explanations, and similar to these – for example, that which the statement of the verse stated, “the fruit of a beautiful tree,” maybe it will be pomegranates or quinces or other [fruits] besides them, until (Sukkah 35a – Chapter 3) they bring a proof about it from that which it stated, “the fruit of a beautiful (hadar) tree,” and [one teacher] said it is a tree the taste of its fruit and its [bark] which are the same; and another said, it is a fruit that resides (hadar) in its tree from one year to the next; and [yet] another said, it is a fruit that dwells upon all waters – they did not bring these proofs because the matter had become garbled for them, until it became known to thee from these proofs. But [rather] without a doubt, we have seen from Yehoshua until now that they would hold a citron with the palm branch (lulav) every year. And there is no disagreement about it, but [rather] they were probing for the hint that is found in Scripture for this.

4- Our Gemara suggest that perhaps פרי עץ הדר  are small peppercorns. The rebuttal is that since it says ולקחתם, it means to imply that the ‘taking’ has to be noticeable. A small peppercorn would not be noticeable when in the palm of a person. 

 

Black Pepper Plants for Sale – FastGrowingTrees.com

Hand Offering Whole Peppercorn Stock Image - Image of hand, corn: 36241417

We mentioned the query of Reb Yosef Engle if one takes 2 לולבים ,  one of which  (unknown which one) is stolen. At first glance one would say that he is יוצא since regardless whichever one is the Kosher one, he did shake it. But says Reb Yosef, perhaps not, since the Kosher one is not ‘noticeable’…

5- We read the text of the Chasam Sofer that is the basis of all discussions concerning the authenticity of locations where we are sure that the Esrogim are not מורכבים. 

lemon tree grafts – The Story of Ranching at Grieb Ranch

Lemon Tree Grafts

Th Rebbe quotes this תשובה  as well. 

OC 207.  

His basic point is that an Esrog must come only from a location that has a מסורה that the trees are not מורכבים.  He acknowledges that there are others who say that there are 4 identifying characteristics that differentiate a non מורכב to a מורכב. But one cannot rely on this alone. 

Fruit of Pompia, citron, sour orange and lemon: a) fruit side, b) inside view of the fruit cut along the equatorial plane. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)

Thus, the only place to get Esrogim from are from Calabria, Italy, where ‘the great Rabbis of France and Germany got their אתרוגים. 

These Esrogim were transferred to the port of Genoa from where they were shipped by boat to the rest of the world.  Hence the name Yanover (or Genoese) Esrogim. 

He likens this to the consumption of an עוף טהור. Despite the identifying characteristics of all Kosher birds (as opposed to non-Kosher ones) that we find in the גמרא, we do not rely on them. We only eat the ones that we have a מסורה that Jews have been eating it for many generations. 

Brakel ‐ The Poultry Club of Great Britain

Brakel Chicken Story

 

More on this next week. 

Shiur Sukkah 34b – 02/23/2022

BSD

Sukkah 34b

1st. Adar 22, 5782. February 23, 2022

 1- We continued with the  מחלוקת amongst the ראשונים on how to reconcile a seeming contradiction of the last two Mishnayos if a הדס that has its top cut off is Kosher. 

We discussed the famous text of the ראב”ד where, to bolster his opinion, he invokes the  רוח הקודש that ‘appeared in our בית מדרש‘.

How did we get the Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit) | Biblical Truth

 2- We discussed the issue concerning  the פסולים of the Daled Minim as they apply to the first day of Sukkos versus the other 6 days. 

לכם –  1 –  ownership. As opposed to borrowing or stealing. 

Sukkah 36: Lulav in the Sukkah | Torah In Motion

2- לקיחה תמה – Meaning that one needs to take all of the four מינים.  If one has 1, 2 or 3 it is as if he has none. 

3- לקיחה תמה – Meaning that the four מינים need to be ‘whole’. If it’s missing a piece, חסר,  it’s פסול. 

4 – הדר – they need to be beautiful. At the very least the אתרוג. 

Traditional Jewish Holiday Sukkot. Jewish torah Lulav date palm, Etrog citron, Arava willow and Hadas myrtle isolated on transparent. Modern poster, j Stock Vector Image & Art - Alamy

Are the above פסול only of the first day or for the rest of the days as well?

The 4 above are discussed in Tosafos at the beginning of our פרק. 

 There are many others, and the issue is which ones apply on the first day only and which ones apply for the entire Sukkos. Some פסולים may be used even with a ברכה, when no other ones are available. בשעת הדחק. 

 See the Alter Rebbe’s concise list here. 649, 19. 

 3- We mentioned the issue of adding more הדסים and ערבות. 

Order your own Lulav & Etrog — Chabad of Shelton & Monroe

Topics discussed: The Rambam, additional הדסים yes, but no more that 2 ערבות, his letter explaining his שיטה, the various opinions if he changed his mind. 

The כסף משנה that the Rambam had a גמרא that seems to say that adding הדסים is fine as opposed to ערבות. Where is this גמרא? The Minhag Chabad.

From Sefer Haminhagim:

One does not take more than one esrog, one lulav, and two willow twigs – but more than three myrtle twigs may be taken.[543]

I have heard of various individuals being instructed to take four, twelve, thirteen or twenty-six myrtle twigs, but not nine,[544] sixty-eight or sixty-nine.[545]

 4-  Discussed the topic of בל תוסיף. The famous תוספות in Rosh Hashana 28, b, that performing   a מצווה twice cannot be considered בל תוסיף. Only when adding a new type, like adding a rose to the Lulav, is considered בל תוסיף. 

5- Mentioned from a previous Shiur the fascinating story of the dream the Recanati (Rikanti) had concerning the holding of the Lulav and Esrog side by side. 

Sefer Recanati by the Kabbalist - Bidspirit auction

 6- We began with the Mishna of  the הלכות אתרוג. 

One item is the חסר, – a piece missing from the Esrog which will be discussed by the גמרא further on. 

On this topic we read the text of the תרומת הדשן of a question posed to him that shows the pretty sad status of Jews at his time. 

Candied Esrog Recipe - The Sukkah Project®

Preparing Esrog for delivery to customers

The story is about a cluster of towns that were able to acquire only one Kosher esrog. Being that only one town would be able to use the entire Esrog on יום טוב, they literally cut the Esrog into small pieces and sent every town a slice!!!! 

 They asked Reb Yisrael Iserlin if what they did was correct. His response (2, 52) was a definite no. One of his reasons was: We do indeed find opinions of some, that in certain cases where the only Daled minim that one can get his hands on are of questionable כשרות or even outright פסול, one may use them. 

Fresh lemon on palm tree leaf on white background. Premium Photo

ummm….no.

See Alter Rebbe 649 22-24

However, these cases are when there can be no mistake that in future years people will err in thinking that one can use these פסולים to begin with. לכתחילה. 

How to Dry Etrog Slices - Jewish Moms & Crafters

Slicing an Esrog לכתחילה, he writes, is something that others may think that since they have a piece of an Esrog, that is sufficient.

[We weren’t  exactly clear how that would happen]. 

Delightful Candied Etrog Slices | Recipe

https://jewish.momsandcrafters.com/how-to-dry-etrog/

https://www.kosher.com/recipe/delightful-candied-esrog-slices-recipe-3732

7- The Mishna states that according to Rebi Yehuda an Esrog needs to be the size of an egg or larger.

11,699 Giant Egg Stock Photos, Pictures & Royalty-Free Images - iStock
We mentioned the Chasam Sofer (OC 181), that was asked about small Esrogim that were the size of an egg. There is  the opinion that the eggs we see today are smaller than the eggs of the time of the ש״ס.

Would that mean that egg sized Esrogim today are too small?

Miniature Dollhouse Lemon Tree In The Pot | Dollhouse miniatures, Doll house,  Miniatures

We mentioned that this תשובה is where the חתם סופר often quoted saying is mentioned- חדש אסור מן התורה.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shiur Sukkah 34a-b 02/15/2022

BSD

Sukkah 34a-b

1st. Adar 14 , 5782. February 15, 2022

1- Our גמרא discusses items that had their names changed over time. It adds the ramification of these changes. 

חילפא גילא with serrated, saw-like, leaves “זעגעלאך”

Rav Chisda said: These three objects had their names changed since the Beis Hamikdosh was destroyed.

One example: That which was once called ערבה (kosher for ערבות) was called in later generations  צפצפה (not kosher),  and that which was called צפצפה was called ערבה. 

Getting a Name Change Before Divorce: How to Become "Yourself" Again

The Gemore asks: What is the practical halakhic difference that emerges from the name change? The גמרא answers: It is with regard to the mitzva of taking the lulav, as one of the species bound with the lulav is a ערבה branch, which is now called tzaftzafa.

The other 2 are:

 שִׁיפּוּרָא — חֲצוֹצַרְתָּא, חֲצוֹצַרְתָּא — שִׁיפּוּרָא. A straight Shofar as opposed to a Shofar that is ‘crooked’. 

Antlers vs. Horns | Words On Wildlife

A small table versus a larger table. פָּתוּרְתָּא — פָּתוּרָא, פָּתוּרָא — פָּתוּרְתָּא

Furniture for dolls - Country style table for miniature dollhouse – купить на Ярмарке Мастеров – A1SU1COM | Doll furniture, Moscow

We mentioned the reason for these name changes. These words would bring agony to people that lived thru the destruction on the Beis Hamikdosh. Uttering the words ערבה שופר and שולחן, would arouse memories and result in sadness. Thus the name changes. 

Dan Rivoli on Twitter: "The Malbone St. Wreck will no longer be lost in history. 101 years after New York's deadliest train crash, it has a street and subway station plaque in

Name Change due to painful memories

2- Abaya adds another example concerning the names of some of the stomachs a cow or bull have. 

מחט שנמצאת בבית הכוסות

קרביים

The House of Mugs – Collettsville, North Carolina - Atlas Obscura

House of Cups

פניני הלכה הלכות חלב גיד הנשה וניקור | Other - Quizizz

 

Rav Yosef adds yet another example. בבל and בורסיף. It seem that Bursif, as opposed to  בבל,  was a country that was not held in great esteem by the  חכמים. 

In time, the names of these two independent countries switched. 

The גמרא offers the practical reason for the importance of knowing that this changed occurred. 

.לענין גיטי נשים. 

As Rashi explains in Shabbos 36b,  when writing a גט one needs to mention the name of the city. It is therefore important to know what country is now called בבל and what is called בורסיף.

City with the longest name. The longest names of cities in the world

Try writing a גט here.

3 – We mentioned the fascinating תשובה from the חתם סופר that goes thru the entire idea of how to identify and spell the name of the city where the גט is written. 

He questions our גמרא concerning בבל and בורסיף.

What need is there to state such matters to begin with? Anyone that writes גט needs to inquire what is the current name of the city. So if בבל is now called בורסיף, let it be so. Write , of course, בורסיף as logic would require! What is the חידוש of our גמרא? 

We scratched the surface of the תשובה where the חתם סופר sets parameters on how to spell the name of cities – especially when Jews use a different name than the non-Jewish population. 

Example:  Jews call a particular Romanian city שאץ. (The Rebbe of Shatz, or Shatzer Matzohs). Whereas the official name of the City is Suceava. 

Where is Suceava Located? What Country is Suceava in? Suceava Map

Another example we mentioned a few weeks  ago was צעהלים, . 

Jewish Community of Deutschkreutz

Prague or  Praha. 

Golem & Rabbi Loew of Praha. A golem is an animated human-like being, created entirely from inanimate m… | Retro illustration, Comic illustration, Character design

He further addresses the issue of a city changing names. This can occur in different ways.

A – Officially changed by the government. 

Constantinople, Turkey , which Jews called קושטא, to Istanbul. (Contemporary examples would be Leningrad to Petersburg and (until further notice) back to Petersburg. Yekaterinoslav to Dnipropetrovsk). 

B- Unofficial name changes that occur by the people beginning to use a slightly different name or spelling. 

C- The slow and evolving pronunciation changes of the cities. 

The חתם סופר offers clarity on these issues. 

4- We mentioned the issue of Chicago. Is it טשיקגו or שיקגו

טשיקגו – Chicago, Maxwell St, 1903

5- Also spoke about writing a גט in Melbourne Australia where the local river is the Yarra River. 

 

The aborigines  call this river Yarra Yarra. The newcomers shortened it to a single Yarra. What do we write in a גט? 

איין יארא אדער צוויי יאראס?

6- We mentioned from a previous shiur the letter from the Ragatchover concerning a פנקס  found with instructions from the Alter Rebbe to write ימא זוטא when a city is adjacent to a lake. 

Shiur Makkos 4a, 06/24/2014

(See there comment at bottom from Alex Heppenheimer). 

7- The next Mishna specifies the amount of each of the ד’ מינים one needs to take. 

We mentioned that despite the many מנהגים to add הדסים of various amounts, we must remember that the שלחן ערוך says that the מדקדקים use only 3 הדסים. So let’s look in our Siddur and not at our neighbor’s skimpy looking  lulav…..

BASIC CALABRIAN SET - Arba'a Minim

6- We discussed the wording in the Mishnah where is seems that הדסים that have been cut off at the top are Kosher! This is in direct contradiction to the previous Mishnah where it states explicitly 

נקטם ראשו פסול. 

How to Grow Willow From Cuttings - Dengarden

We began to discuss the huge argument amongst the ראשונים on how to reconcile this seeming contradiction.

We read the famous text of the ראב”ד where, to bolster his opinion, he invokes the  רוח הקודש 

that ‘appeared in our בית מדרש‘.

Rambam Lulav 8,5.

הדס שנקטם וכו’. כתב הראב”ד ז”ל כבר הופיע רוח הקודש בבית מדרשנו מכמה שנים והעלינו שהוא פסול כסתם מתני’. ודברי רבי טרפון שאמר אפילו שלשתן קטומים כשר ענין אחר הוא ולא שנקטם ראשו והכל ברור בחבורנו ומקום הניחו לי מן השמים עכ”ל:

We will IY”H continue next week.