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Shiur- Sukkah 30a 11/30/21 – Chanukah

BSD

Suka 30a

Kislev 26, 5782. November 30, 2021

1- We continued the topic of מצוה הבאה בעבירה. 

The interesting משל of רשב”י explaining what is wrong in stealing to bring a Korbon using the warped logic that ‘everything belong to G-D anyway’. So stealing and offering it to Him is no issue.  

A parable of a king who was passing by a customs/toll booth. He said to his servants: Pay the toll to the taxmen. They said to him: Doesn’t all the tax in its entirety belong to you? If the taxes will ultimately reach the royal treasury, what is the point of you paying the levy? 

Kings Island Toll Plaza - Cintech Construction

He said to them: From my conduct, all travelers will learn and will not evade payment of the tax. 

So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: “I the Lord… hate robbery in a burnt-offering.” Although the whole world is His and the acquisitions of man have no impact upon Him, God says: From My conduct, My children will learn and distance themselves from robbery, even from robbery unrelated to the needs of offerings.

2- We mentioned the famed Jewish traveler, Ishtori Haparchi, [mentioned him in a Pesach Shiur about 6 years ago and here], who writes in his Book כפתור ופרח that a Lulav from a date tree that grew in Yerushalayim would be פסול because of מצוה הבאה בעבירה. What is the עבירה? 

There was a תקנה enacted that no trees should be planted in Yerushalayim to avoid the spreading of טומאה. BK 82?. Therefore, using a לולב from such a tree is  a מצוה הבאה בעבירה!! 

3- We spoke about Rav Huna’s instructions to the wholesalers when purchasing Arovos from non-Jewish farmers that grew them in lands that (perhaps) were previously owned by Jews and forcibly taken away from them. 

Young Jewish boy selling arovos - willows - on the holiday of Hoshanna  Rabba. In Crown Heights, Brooklyn, New York Stock Photo - Alamy

We digressed to the wide Halachic topic of assets that are lost during a war and found by others. The fact is that the owners, once they were expelled from their homes, in all likelihood gave up. יאוש. Their ownership is gone because they undoubtedly lost hope for recovery. 

Documenting Nazi Plunder of European Art | National Archives

President Eisnhower surveying some of the artwork looted by the Nazis 

See here 

5 – Yiush is a big topic and we will discuss more bl”n next week. 

Das Martyrium Der Sieben Makkabäer, 1863 - Antonio Ciseri - WikiArt.org

6- Speaking about the story of Chana and her seven children, See Gitin 57, b. Medrash Eicha 1, 50, we mentioned the Ramban about the various מדרשים we have.  

7 – We discussed the popular Chanukah song  מעוז צור. Composed at the time of the terrible tragedies that Jews suffered in the hands of the Crusaders ימ”ש. 

Mentioned that whereas the song was composed in the 13th century, the last stanza only appeared a few hundred years later. 

Some suggest the reason being is the hidden messages against the religion the individual and the religion that caused this great calamity. 

Here is an interesting article on this. 

 

Regarding בְּצֵל צַלְמוֹן we mentioned the Rov of the city of  Tzeilim. The name of the city where he was Rov actually is  Deutschkreutz,

Jews, used a different name……

בס”ד

חנוכה תשפ”ב

Last stanza   of                                                                                                                                             מעוז צור

 

חֲשׂוֹף זרוֹע קָדְשֶׁךָ

וְקָרֵב קֵץ הַיְשׁוּעָה

Expose your holy arm,

And bring the end of the redemption (yeshua)

נְקֹם נִקְמַת עֲבָדֶיךָ

מֵאֻמָּה הָרְשָׁעָה

Avenge the abuse of your servants

From the wicked nation.

 

כִּי אָרְכָה לָנוּ הַיְשׁוּעָה

וְאֵין קֵץ לִימֵי הָרָעָה

For the redemption has been long delayed,

And there is no end to the days of misery.

דְּחֵה אַדְמוֹן

בְּצֵל צַלְמוֹן

Reject Edom

In the shadow of tzalmon

 

הָקֵם לָנוּ רוֹעִים שִׁבְעָה

and set up for us the seven shepherds.

 

Shiur Sukkah 29b (2) 11/23/21

BSD

Sukkah 29 b.(2) 

Kislev 19, 5782. November 23, 2021

1 – We began the third Perek in Sukkah where the Halachos of the Daled Minim are detailed. 

The Lulav and Etrog: The Four Kinds - Chabad Center of Natick

 

2 – The Chinuch explains that the reason for this Mitzvah is to connect the joy of the season with a Mitzvah. Sukkos is a happy time when the fruits of the year are harvested and we celebrate a successful season. .  To channel this joy into קדושה we were commanded to take samples of produce and vegetation (Lulav, Esrog, Hadasim and Aravos) and use them for a Mitzvah. 

St. Margaret's School for Girls Aberdeen :: Harvest Festival

3 – He also adds another reason being that these four Minim symbolize vital parts of the body. Esrog – heart. Lulav – spine. Hadasim – eyes. Aravos – lips. 

ועוד יש בארבעה מינין אלו ענין אחר, שהם דומים לאברים שבאדם היקרים (עי’ מדרש רבה ויקרא פ’ ל’ ומדרש תנחומא אמור אות יט). שהאתרוג דומה ללב, שהוא משכן השכל, לרמז שיעבד בוראו בשכלו, והלולב דומה לשדרה שהיא העקר שבאדם לרמז שיישיר כל גופו. לעבודתו ברוך הוא, וההדס דומה לעינים, לרמוז שלא יתור אחר עיניו ביום שמחת לבו, והערבה דומה לשפתים, שבהן יגמר האדם כל מעשהו בדבור, לרמז שישים רסן בפיו ויכון דבריו ויירא מהשם יתברך אף בעת השמחה.

4 – Lulav Hagozul. We mentioned that this Perk is ‘loaded’ with למדות, and if it were to be learned in the Yeshivah cycle they would barely manage to cover the first 2 דפים…….

5 – The Gemara says that on ‘Yom Tov Sheni’ the laws of Lulav change. Whereas on day one, one need his own Lulav, לכם, on ‘Yom Tov Sheni’ we do not require לכם, and perhaps one would be יוצא even with a stolen Lulav. 

We discussed that ‘Yom Tov Sheni’ can mean two things. 

A- Literally the second day of Sukkos (and also the rest of Chol HaMoed). That would imply that the second day of Yom Tov, since we only observe it because of the old Minhag (when people were unsure when Yom Tov actually occurred) it is not like the first day.  

http://hasoferet.com/blog/2012/02/yom-tov-sheni-safek-rishon/

B- ‘Yom Tov Sheni’ means only Chol Hamoed, i.e. day 3 and on. It does not mean the second day of Yom Tov. Meaning that on the second day we must be as stringent as the first day, despite us knowing nowadays  that it is not Yom Tov.

Elie Wiesel, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and renowned Holocaust survivor, dies at 87 - Israel News - Haaretz.com

6 – We mentioned the story with Eli Weisel when he erroneously said that when we take out 3 ספרי תורה, we prepare three ‘cholents’ instead of 3 kugels……

7- Our Gemara says that a Korbon must be owned by its donor. It cannot be stolen, as the פסוק says: אדם כי יקריב מכם קרבן. 

Aliens Steal Cattle - TV Tropes

Cow Abduction

Spoke about Reb Yehuda Eber (BK. 54) the famous מגיד שיעור in Tomchei Temimim of  Warsaw/Otwock. 

משכילים ועובדים

In his ספר – שערי יהודה he has an interesting query as to the definition of הפקר. 

Option 1- Does it mean that it has no owners at all. 

Lost, mislaid, and abandoned property - Wikipedia

Option 2- Perhaps הפקר means that it belongs to everyone. But not ‘belonging to all’  in a sense of partnership, with everyone having a certain percentage. Rather it means that everyone has the right to come and claim it,  and whoever comes first and makes a קנין, becomes the owner to the exclusion of others. 

Just like לקט שכחה ופאה that only the poor can claim it. One cannot say it belongs to all, for if so, even the wealthy would be able to take it. The legal status of לקט שכחה ופאה means that it ‘belongs’ to the poor to the extent that it grants any poor person the right to claim it, and once claimed it excludes all others.  

לקט ופרט – ויקיפדיה

פרוייקט מצוה נדירה | מענה | maane.info

Similarly, הפקר means a state that it belongs to all (not as partners, but) to the extent that anyone has the right to claim it and own it. Once claimed, the rest of the world loses its claim. 

What Is Abandoned Property In Bankruptcy? - Allmand Law Firm, PLLC

Abandoned property, come and get it!

What is the practical difference? Says Reb Yidel (as his Polish students would call him): if there was only one person alive in the entire world.  Any object that is הפקר, if we assume that הפקר belongs to no one, as option 1 above, then he would need to make a קנין to gain ownership. 

You're The Only One In The World!! — Steemit

However, if הפקר means it belong to all as above, and a קנין is needed to exclude everyone else, then since he is the only human alive, there are no others to exclude, thus no קנין would be required. By default all belongs to him. 

8- He then quotes a Rashi in ויקרא in regards to  אדם הראשון, that הכל היה שלו. Everything in the world belonged to אדם הראשון. 

The Story of Genesis: What Was God's Will Behind Adam Naming the Animals?

Now how is that possible? Surely he didn’t travel the entire world making a קנין on everything. 

If we assume the second option, it makes sense. Since הפקר, (which at creation included everything), potentially belongs to all until one person makes a קנין, then אדם הראשון, being alone in the world had no one to exclude,  so by default he acquired everything! 

A Freilichen Chanukka!

Happy Chanukah: Snow Covered Chanukah Menorah | (One of a co… | Flickr

 

Shiur Sukkah 29 a-b, 11/16/21

Sukkah 29 a-b. 

Kislev 12, 5782. November 16, 2021

1- We began with the rather interesting Psak of a Rav concerning a ספק ממזר. It surely takes a lot of guts to declare that a child is ‘like Moshe Rabeinu’ and will be born after 6 months only. Nu nu. 

40 Moses In A Basket Illustrations & Clip Art - iStock

Who are we to comment on Rabbanim and the tough issues they encounter. 

2- Lunar and solar eclipses. The Gemara states they occur when humans are not acting properly and the eclipse is not a good sign. 

Lunar eclipse 2021

Lunar Eclipse

The ancient question is how can something that’s predetermined be a sign or result of human behavior?

Solar Eclipse Explained: Definition, Diagram, and History

Explanation of the Rebbe. Here.  LK”S 15, page 7 and on.

The central point is:

The idea that “when the luminaries are stricken it is an ill omen” is: When an eclipse occurs it is a sign that this time is dominated by a “mazal ra” — bad luck, or literally, an evil constellation. It is a time that has a predilection for tragedy. That, in turn, causes it to be a time more prone to being punished for the “improper conduct”

Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse of the Century: When and How to Watch | PEOPLE.com

Lunar Eclipse

The Rebbe writes in footnote 19 that his explanation is based on the words of (among others) the עיון יעקב which is the classic commentary on עין יעקב authored by Reb Yakov Reisher. 

His books span many subjects in addition to the above.  

2- Speaking of the עיון יעקב in regards to solar and lunar eclipses, we mentioned another interesting question posed to Reb Yakov Reisher. This is in his שו”ת שבות יעקב. Part 2, 10. 

He writes: ‘When I arrived in Worms in 1714 to accept the Rabbinical position, I was asked by some who claimed that a certain Rov decreed a fast day because they could not perform קידוש לבנה due to the clouds blocking its view’.

 He continues to debate this idea based on our Gemara’s parable, [that when rain occurs on Sukkos, causing the sitting in a Sukkah to be unpleasant] “like the master pouring water in the face of his unworthy servant, saying ‘I have no interest in your service’.”

Master and Servant stock illustration. Illustration of attention - 14402191

The Maharil adds that when leaving the Sukkah during a rain downpour, one should slam not the door in anger.  Rather, should be humbled by the ‘slap’ received from his master and walk out silently. 

Using this משל, perhaps we should fast when clouds cover the moon and is not allowing us to perform the Mitzvah of קידוש לבנה. 

His conclusion however  is that we should not enact a fast for such a case. 

3- Speaking of Reb Yakov Reisher, we discussed his commentary on the Shulchan Aruch חק יעקב which in many prints appears at the bottom of the page. 

The Alter Rebbe quotes him frequently and we mentioned,  in one place of a peculiar occurrence, he disagrees with him. 

The case is about a person who didn’t sell or annul, מבטל, his חמץ before פסח. What happens if this person CV passes away in middle of פסח? The inheritors of his assets are now faced with an interesting problem. Do they have to burn his חמץ? Is it theirs? 

9 Best Alcohol Subscription Boxes 2021 - Monthly Boxes for Wine, Liquor, Beer, Cocktails

The חק יעקב says that since this chametz is a דבר אסור, they never inherited it. The איסור חמץ creates a situation that the חמץ, in a sense, becomes ownerless. Since it has no monetary value it  cannot be sold or passed on in a ירושה. Thus, there is no obligation for children to deal with it.  [although it’s best that they get rid of it but cannot make a ברכה, since it’s not their chometz]. 

See here. Orach Chaim 435, 2.


The Alter Rebbe disagrees with this פסק. In short, a  דבר איסור is not ownerless at all. No one can take it away from the owner. It’s just that the Torah prohibits the use and הנאה from such items. Therefore this חמץ, upon the passing of this שלומזל, is automatically transferred to his inheritors and they must deal with it. 

This topic is a very complicated Sugya and much discussed by many.

 4- Our Gemore ends the second פרק enumerating actions that are not in accordance to Torah, not civil or mentshlich and cause RL for people to lose everything and become impoverished. 

One is פוסקי צדקה. Simply meaning to pledge to donate to charity and not paying.

We related the humorous story of the chosid of the Rupshitzer Rebbe who was looking for a way for his wife to go to Gan Eden….

Across the Country Synagogues Question the 'Dues' Model of Membership - Tablet Magazine

The Maharshah says it refers to the community leaders that start a charity campaign with a high number to reach. They then assess how much each member should give to charity and end up not giving their share. The high number was to entice others to give!

 In other words it means:

Pledging with no intention of actually paying themselves but just done in order to entice others to give. 

We mentioned some Poskim that discuss this issue. Can one bid, for example, at an Aliya auction, when the intent is for others to raise their bids?

Auction with hands holding paddles number and bid Vector Image

The Minchas Yitzchok 3,77, rules that it is prohibited and quotes an interesting story with Reb Shimon Ben Shotach.

נזיר האלוהים מרן הרב דוד כהן זצ"ל - שערות האדם – עולמות דקים על פי הקבלה גולגולת הראש מסמלת את ספירת הכתר, הספירה העליונה ביותר במערכת הספירות, והגולגולת היא מרכבה לאורות של

Here it  is from Medrash Rabo. Breishis 91. 

תָּנֵי שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת נְזִירִין סָלְקִין בָּעֲיִין לִמְקָרְבָה תְּשַׁע מְאָה קוּרְבָּנִין בְּיוֹמֵי דְּשִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, לִמְאָה וְחַמְשִׁין מָצָא לָהֶם פֶּתַח וּמְאָה וְחַמְשִׁין לָא מָצָא פֶּתַח. 

סָלֵיק רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח גַּבֵּי יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלַת מְאָה נְזִירִין סָלְקוּ בָּעֲיִין לִמְקָרְבָה תְּשַׁע מְאָה קוּרְבָּנִין וְלֵית לְהוֹן, אֶלָּא יְהֵיב אַתְּ פַּלְגָּא מִן דִּידָךְ וַאֲנָא פַּלְגָא מִן דִּידִי וְיֵזְלוּן וִיקָרְבוּן, יְהַב יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא פַּלְגָא מִן דִּילֵיהּ וַאֲזַלּוּן וְקָרְבוּן. אֲתוֹן וַאֲמָרִין לִשְׁנָא בִּישָׁא לְיַנַּאי מַלְכָּא עַל שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, תֶּהֱוֵי יְדַע דְּכָל מַה דְּקָרְבוּן מִדִּידָךְ קָרְבוּן, בְּרַם שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח לָא יָהֵיב מִן דִּידֵיהּ כְּלוּם. 

כָּעַס יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא עַל שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח. שְׁמַע דְּהוּא כָּעֵס עֲלוֹהִי, צְרַת [נסח אחר צרח] לֵיהּ וַעֲרַק, לְבָתַר יוֹמֵי הֲווֹן בְּנֵי אֱנָשָׁא רַבְרְבִין מִן מַלְכוּתָא דְּפַרְסָאֵי יַתְבִין נָגְסִין עַל פָּתוֹרָא דְּיַנַּאי מַלְכָּא, אֲמַרוּן לֵיהּ מָרִי מַלְכָּא נָהֲרִין אֲנַן דַּהֲוָה הָכָא חַד סַב וַהֲוָה אֲמַר לָן מִילֵי דְאוֹרָיְיתָא, אֲמַר לַאֲחָתֵיהּ שְׁלַחִי בַּתְרֵיהּ וְאַיְיתִיתֵיהּ. אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ הַב לִי מִלָּא וּשְׁלַח לֵיהּ עִזְקָתָךְ, וְהוּא אָתֵי. יְהַב לָהּ מִלָּא וּשְׁלַח לֵיהּ עִזְקָתֵיהּ וַאֲתָא. 

מִדַּאֲתָא יְתֵיב לֵיהּ בֵּין מַלְכָּא לְמַלְכְּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ, לְמָה עֲרַקְתְּ, שְׁמָעִית דְּמָרִי מַלְכָּא כָּעֵיס עֲלַי וּצְרַח לִי מִינָךְ דְּלָא תִקְטְלַנִּי וְקַיְימַת הָדֵין קְרָיָא (ישעיה כו, כ): חֲבִי כִּמְעַט רֶגַע עַד יַעֲבָר זָעַם, 

אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְמָה אַפְלֵית בִּי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם לָא אַפְלֵית בָּךְ, אֶלָּא אַתְּ מִמָּמוֹנָךְ וַאֲנָא מִן אוֹרָיְיתָא, דִּכְתִיב (קהלת ז, יב): כִּי בְּצֵל הַחָכְמָה בְּצֵל הַכָּסֶף. 

Free translation:

Higiena w minionych epokach. "Ręce myć często, stopy rzadko, a głowy nie myć wcale" | Anna Winiarska, Magazyn TVN24

It was taught, 300 Nazirim came to sacrifice 900 Karbanos in the days of Shimon Ben Shotach. (Each Nazir needs to bring 3 קרבנות).
For 150 of the Nazirim he found a way to annul their נזירות.  For the other 150 he could not.

He went to King Yannai (his brother in law) and told him 300 Nazirim needed to sacrifice 900 karbanos but they didn’t have the means. He suggested that he will give half and King Yannai will give the others. Yannai gave half (450) and the (150) Nazirim offered the sacrifices.

Someone then told Yannai about Shimon B Shotach, how all the sacrifices were from Yannai and none from Shimon. Yannai became angry and yelled at him, Shimon then ran away.

After a time, some dignitaries of the Persian Kingdom were eating with Yannai and they said to him, “Dear King, we remember that there was an elder sage who would say ideas of Torah?”

Yannai then told them the episode of the sacrifices, they then asked to bring Shimon back. Yannai gave his word that Shimon would not be harmed and Shimon returned and sat between King and Queen.

Yannai asked Shimon why he had fled. He replied that he heard the king was angry at him and did not want the King to kill him, thereby fulfilling the verse in Yeshaya 26:20 ‘Hide inside for a small moment, until the anger passes’. Yannai then asked him why he had fooled him. Shimon responded that he had not fooled him – “you gave the for 150 from your money and I the gave the 150 (an annulment) from (my) Torah”.

We see from this story that only because Reb Shimon Ben Shotach fulfilled his part by using a Torah ‘fulfillment’ was it acceptable to induce Yannai to give his share. If just to raise the bids of others, with no intention of winning the bid and paying up, it would not be acceptable.

 

 

Shiur Sukkah 28b 11/09/2021

BSD

Sukkah  28b

Kislev 6, 5782. November 9, 2021

Short notes. 

1- Don’t remember how we got to talk about this…..

Related the story of the time following the Rebbe’s heart attack in 1977. A woman in Crown Heights wanted to tell the Rebbe to watch his health.  So she sent the Rebbe a few letters the previous Rebbe sent to her father, the Kapishnitzer Rebbe (or Kopycznitzer). It seems her father was ill because of not eating properly (fasting?). 

The Kapischnitzer Rebbe,

In one, the previous Rebbe writes: I hear that your doctors instructed you on what to eat and what not to eat. But you are only following half of their regiment….what not to eat….

2- Discussed the story with Shammai who created a Sukkah by opening a hole in the ceiling. All this was done so that his infant grandson would be inside a Sukkah. 

Tree falls into house, creates massive hole in roof in Sycamore Township

As to what the Halachah is, see here from the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch. OC 640, S’3

אע”פ שהקטנים פטורים מן הסוכה מן התורה עד שיהיו בני י”ג שנים מכל מקום מדברי סופרים כל קטן שאינו צריך לאמו  דהיינו בן שש שנים  שלימות.

 ואם הקטן חכם וחריף בענין שאינו צריך לאמו אפילו כשהוא בן חמש שנים שלימות חייב בסוכה כדי לחנכו במצות.  אבל כשעדיין הוא צריך לאמו כשם שאמו פטורה כך הוא פטור אפילו מדברי סופרים כיון שהוא צריך לה:

Seems to say that a child over 7 must eat in a Sukkah. However, if he is ‘smart and sharp’ and ‘does not need’ his mother, the age for Sukkah for him is six and up. 

Smiling Jewish Boy In Striped Yellow Shirt Stock Photo - Download Image Now - iStock

3- The next Mishna states the general concept of תשבו כעין תדורו and the idea that “on Sukkos one makes his Sukkah as his permanently home and his house the ‘temporary’ one”

We discussed how far this goes. Some people take this seriously and practically move into the Sukkah for the entire Yom Tov. 

Sukkah Photo Gallery - The Sukkah Project®

We mentioned the אליה רבה, a fundamental book on the שלחן ערוך. He writes that on Sukkos one should not cover the dining table of the house with a tablecloth!  The reason for this is that doing so would show that the Sukka is not the permanent living quarters during Sukkos. OC 5639

Here is the פרי מגדים with many interesting points: 

תרלט סעיף א (א) וישן. עיין ט״ז. על״מ בשם מהרי״ל ובמהרי״ו הרוצה לשחוק בקוביא ישחק בסוכה. 

If one wants to play cards – do it in the Sukkah.

ראוי שלא לדבר בסוכה כ״א ד״ת, וכ״ש דברים בטילים שזה אסור אף בסוכה. 

Preferable to speak only תורה in the Sukkah! Idle talk, which is prohibited regardless, is prohibited in the Sukkah. 

עיין אליה רבה ראוי שלא לדבר חוץ לסוכה. וקוביא בדרך שאין איסור הנזהר תע״ב. 

See the אליה רבה that says not to schmooze outside the Sukkah. [not only דברי תורה] Card paying, when permitted, is best in the Sukkah. 

Image

אין לכסות השולחן במפה בשבת וי״ט בבית כ״א בסוכה. ומשמע בח״ה אין מכסין כלל השולחן (אף בסוכה) ובשמע״צ יכסה גס בבית החורף יע״ש.

One should not cover the table of his house on Sukkos!! It seems that on חול המועד one does not need to place a tablecloth on the table. On Shmini Atzeres, one should cover both tables, in the house and in the Sukkah. [This is what the אליה רבה writes]

 וכמדומה שאין העולם נוהגין כך רק מכסים השולחן אף בביתו גם ח״ה מכסין השולחן דיו”ט מקרי.

Comments the פרי מגדים: 

It seems that no one does it. [not to cover the house dining table. They cover both tables] 

On חול המועד, one should indeed cover the table because it is called יום טוב days.

Pin on TRADITIONS!!!

4- We spoke about the issues of sitting in a Sukkah, as is מנהג חב”ד, even when it is raining. 

A – בל תוסיף. 

B – Having הנאה of the Sukkah when one is פטור. [If it’s windy, the walls and Schach provide some protection] 

Sukkahs keep falling in Rogers Park's "Sukkah's Falling" parody video. (YouTube screenshot)

C- Being called a הדיוט. 

D- Is it בכלל a Sukkah when it rains? 

 

Shiur Sukkah 28a-b, 11/03/2021

BSD

Suka  28 a-b

Cheshvan 28, 5782. November 3, 2021

1- We began with the Mishnah of the double מחלוקת between Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel. 

No Outside Food or Beverages Sign, SKU: S2-1051

A- Someone sitting in a large Sukkah with his plate of food outside the Sukkah or inside a house or overhang. Beis Shammai says that one is not יוצא. Beis Hillel has no issue with it. 

B- The minimum size of a Sukkah. 

These two points we discussed at length on Daf 3a. 

Instant Edible Sukkah: step by step photos | Bible Belt Balabusta

See here and here for Shiur Points. 

2- The Mishna relates a story:

In the case of one whose head and most of his body were in the sukka and his table was in the house, Beis Shammai deem it unfit, and Beis Hillel deem it fit. 

The story: 

Beis Hillel said to Beis Shammai: 

And wasn’t there an incident where the Elders of Beis Shammai and the Elders of Beis Hillel went to visit Reb Yoḥanan ben HaChoranit and they found him such that he was sitting with his head and most of his body in the Sukka and his table in the house, and they said nothing to him? Even Beit Shammai did not object. 

Beis Shammai said to them: Is there proof from there? That is not what happened; rather, they said to him: If you were accustomed to act in this manner, you have never fulfilled the mitzva of Sukkah in your life.

3- We discussed this story where it seems that Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel are arguing about what happened at that visit to Reb Yoḥanan ben HaChoranit. It is unusual to find an argument about a historical fact. 

No photo description available.

Some suggested that perhaps Beis Hillel left this Sukkah prior to the מחאה made by Beis Shamai. 

4- Another point mentioned is that this story was told by Beis Hillel. Yet, they give respect to their opponents and mention their name after Beis Shammai’s! 

Beis Hillel said to Beis Shammai: 

And wasn’t there an incident where the Elders of Beis Shammai and the Elders of Beis Hillel went to visit Reb Yoḥanan ben HaChoranit. 

The Gemara in Eiruvin 13 b mentioned this as a reason that we mostly follow the opinion of Beis Hillel. 

מפני מה זכו ב”ה לקבוע הלכה כמותן? מפני שנוחין ועלובין היו, ושונין דבריהן ודברי ב”ש, ולא עוד אלא שמקדימין דברי ב”ש לדבריהן .

Why is being polite is a reason to rule like them? Isn’t an argument in Torah decided on it’s merits? Good question. Any comments? To be continued. 

5- We discussed that Beis Shammai says that sitting in a Sukkah with the plate outside the Sukkah is prohibited. The reason is that one may move his body towards the plate and eat outside the perimeter of the Sukkah. 

But why would that invalidate the Sukkah? Part of the Mitzvah is to sleep inside the Sukkah as well. And this inadvertent movement will not happen when sleeping. 

Mentioned the Ragatchover who say that eating in the Sukkah ‘creates the Sukkah’. Until one eats there it is a ‘hut for shade’. 

The Rogochover Speaks His Mind - Jewish Review of Books

Thus, if one cannot eat in the Sukkah, according to Beis Shamai, because he may unintentionally move out of the Sukkah, then this ‘structure’ is not a Sukkah! 

Cabana (structure) - Wikipedia

Hut for Shade

6- Our Gemara sates that one would think that women need to eat in a Sukkah, despite the fact that Sukkah is a מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא.  

Why would one think so? 

The reason is that we need תשבו כעין תדורו. Meaning that we move into the Sukkah for the 7 days and make the Sukkah our home. The logic follows that just as in a home a woman lives together with her husband, a Sukkah should be no different. Based on this, women should indeed be obligated to be in  a Sukkah.

The הלכה למשה מסיני  comes to teach you that women do not need to eat in a Sukkah. 

Chag Sameach – Jewish Museum of Maryland

The Ramo OC 639, 2 writes that perhaps the reason people do not sleep in the Sukkah nowadays is because the Sukkahs we have are small and there is no place for all the couples who eat there to also sleep in privacy, husband and wife. 

The Mogen Avrohom (8)  says that Ramo’s source is apparently from our Gemara where it says that women need to be in a Sukkah because of  תשבו כעין תדורו. A couple is usually together year round and a Sukkah is not different. 

The Passover (Pesach) Seder | My Jewish Learning

But, asks the Mogen Avrohom, that is only a הוה אמינא in the Gemara. The conclusion in our Gemore is that despite logic telling us  תשבו כעין תדורו and requiring the woman to be in the Sukkah, nevertheless the הלכה למשה  מסיני tells us that נשים  are פטור! So what does the Ramo mean? 

He suggest that the Ramo meant to say that, true, women do not need to be in a Sukkah. It’s the husband, who is חייב  to sleep in the Sukkah, and due to the lack of privacy his wife cannot join him, so he is מצטער and therefore he does not need to sleep there!

What is the significance of the four cups of wine? - Passover

7 We mentioned the Tosfos in Psochim (108, b) that discusses that although מן התורה there is no obligation for woman to sit in a  Sukkah, why didn’t the Rabanan obligate the woman to sit in a Sukkah just as they did with the ד’ כוסות because woman were also part of the miracle of פסח. 

————————————

Received an anonymous comment.

We wrote:

The Gemore in Eiruvin 13 b mentioned this as a reason that we mostly follow the opinion of Beis Hillel. 

מפני מה זכו ב”ה לקבוע הלכה כמותן? מפני שנוחין ועלובין היו, ושונין דבריהן ודברי ב”ש, ולא עוד אלא שמקדימין דברי ב”ש לדבריהן .

Why is being polite a reason to rule like them? Isn’t an argument in Torah decided on its merits? Good question. Any comments? To be continued. 

Comment: I’ve heard or read an explanation, that a haughty one doesn’t “hear” the counter position, and so hasn’t weighed all sides of the issue. A humble one, however, reaches their conclusion after considering all angles put forth in the debate.
————–
Thank you!
This idea is mentioned by the Mahara”l.
Ari

 

יש לעיין במאמר זה וכי מפני שהיו משפילים את עצמם הלכה כמותם והלא אין ההלכה צריכה להיות אלא כמי שדבריו נכונים.

אלא התשובה לכך היא שמדות אלו הם סיבה אמיתית להיות דבריהם נכונים כי מי שכועס הרי הוא רוצה שיחזיקו את דבריו בכח וביד חזקה ולכן הוא סר מן האמת אבל מי שהוא נוח דבריו נמשכים אחר האמת .

וכן ממה שהיו מקדימים דברי בית שמאי לדבריהם נראה שלא היו שונאים אותם ולא היו חולקים עליהם מחמת תאות הניצוח ואם היו שומעים מהם סברא נכונה שמכוחה אין סברת עצמם נכונה היו מודים לדבריהם ולכן ראוי להיות ההלכה כדבריהם

מהר”ל באר הגולה תחילת הבאר החמישי ^

Shiur Sukkah 27b (2) 28a. 10/26/21

BSD

Suka 27b (2) 28a. 

Cheshvan 20, 5782. October 26, 2021

1- Some notes from last week:

Mentioned the פנים יפות who says that the 2 opinions if a Sukkah is supposed to be לכם, (meaning that one needs to own his own Sukkah or not), correspond to the 2 opinions/reasons why we actually sit in a Sukkah. 

We find that Reb Eliezer and Reb Akiva (suka 11b) argue as to the meaning of the commandment “you shall sit in Sukkah because I placed the Bnei Isroel in Sukkos when I took them out of Egypt”.

No photo description available.

What ‘Sukkos’ is the Pasuk referring to? Reb Eliezer says it  refers to the clouds that hovered above them. Reb Akiva says these Sukkos were actual huts.

HD wallpaper: landscape, desert, hut, Africa | Wallpaper Flare

 

Says the פנים יפות, that according to opinion that they were clouds, it would make sense that a Sukkah does not require ‘ownership’; clouds belong to all. However according to the opinion that it was actual huts, then one would say that the Sukka needs to be owned by its user. 

Using Clouds to Predict the Weather

2- Speaking of לכם, we also spoke about חליצה. The shoe used needs to be ‘owned’ by the brother who will wear it on his left (weaker) foot. 

In general, the Beis Din needs to ascertain prior to the חליצה process if he is ‘right footed’. 

This is accomplished by inviting the חולץ to Beis Din prior to the procedure. They ask him to sit and then ask him to come forward.

If he places his right foot first, then he is ‘right footed’. 

If he places his left foot first, then he is ‘left footed’. 

public chalitzah in brooklyn with R ralbag - YouTube

What if one is  ‘left footed’?

Four opinions:

Dons it on his right foot (his left),

Dons  it on his left foot (like everyone else),

Dons it on both his feet, together or simultaneously, ( we are unsure what to do) or…..

He can’t do חליצה at all!! 

3- There are discussions about soldiers that are trained to march left right, left right. Instinctively,  they will always put their left foot first. Does that make the above test on them irrelevant? 

11 ways that National Service affects your civilian life

We also mentioned the interesting opinion of the חתם סופר that uses a novel idea from one of the פוסקים that in reality there is no such a thing as a ‘left footed’ person. This unique opinion is that when the גמרא discusses the issue of  איטר רגל, left footedness, it was referring  to a case when one is handicapped ר”ל with his right foot dragging after his left. 

See here. AH, 91 paragraph אמנם. 

3 – This week, 28a,  we continued with the מנהגים and fascinating stories of the the great Reb Eliezer of Lud

He used to say: ‘I never said anything that I didn’t hear from my Rebbe’ (Reb Yochanon ben Zakai). 

Yochanan Ben Zakkai | My Jewish Learning

We spoke at length about this statement.  

Question 1- There are numerous statement in all of Sha”s where Reb Eliezer states an opinion that seems to be his own, since he doesn’t mention that he heard it from his Rebbe.  

Answers: 

  1. This  custom was only while his Rebbe was still alive. 
  2. He heard everything from his Rebbe. However,  after dwelling on his master’s ideas, he internalized some of these sayings to the point that it became ‘his’. Thus he would not say them in the name of his Rebbe. Likutei Sichos 36. 181.
  3. He heard and only repeated the כללים from his Rebbe. Based on these general rules,he expanded and created new ideas. LK”S 19, 266, 29.

 Question 2- If this מנהג is to be lauded and followed by all, how could Torah flourish?  All we would have are repetitions from the רב to his תלמיד. Nothing new or creative. 

Answer: Reb Eliezer didn’t mean to limit creativity. 

His only refrain from not saying things he didn’t hear from his Rebbe applied only to Halochos that he heard from others saying that they heard it from their respective Rebbes going back to Moshe Rabeinu. 

Novel ideas and new interpretation from others, not his own Rebbe, are not in this category. 

This also answers question 1 above. Aruch Laner. 

4- Here is the next fascinating piece of Gemara. From Sefaria 

The Sages taught: Hillel the Elder had eighty students. 

Thirty of them were sufficiently worthy that the Divine Presence should rest upon them as it did upon Moses our teacher. 

Thirty of them were sufficiently worthy that the sun should stand still for them as it did for Joshua bin Nun. 

רבי יונתן בן עוזיאל | JDN - חדשות

Twenty were on an intermediate level between the other two. The greatest of all the students was Yonatan ben Uzziel, and the youngest of them was Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai.

Now about Ren Yochanon Ben Zakkai: 

The Sages said about Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai that he did not neglect Bible; Mishna; Gemara; halakhot and aggadot; minutiae of the Torah and minutiae of the scribes; the hermeneutical principles of the Torah with regard to a fortiori inferences and verbal analogies; the calculation of the calendrical seasons; and numerology [gimmatreyaot]. In addition, he did not neglect esoteric matters, including the conversation of ministering angels; the conversation of demons, and the conversation of palm trees; parables of launderers, which are folk tales that can be used to explain the Torah; parables of foxes; and more generally, a great matter and a small matter. 

The Gemara elaborates: A great matter is referring to the secrets of the Design of the Divine Chariot, the conduct of the transcendent universe. 

A small matter is, for example, halakhot that were ultimately formulated in the framework of the disputes of Abaye and Rava.

 

5- What is this ‘conversation of trees’? 

How Trees Secretly Talk to Each Other in the Forest | Decoder - YouTube

We mentioned the Rashba Bava Basra 134a who quotes Reb Hai Gaon who writes that in his days there was a certain Reb Avrohom Kabasi who had the ability to hear the conversation of palm trees. 

שיחת דקלים. כתב רבינו האי גאון ז”ל כי מר אברהם קבסי היה מכיר בשיחת דקלים ומה הם אומרים כאשר מתנודדין ברוח.

see  קורא הדורות    on  page 5

 

Growing Network Communication With A Group Of Two Trees Shaped As A Human Head With A

 

As to what science has to say about this phenomenon, see here about trees when sensing stress, transmit messages to other adjoining trees alerting them to fungus and disease. 

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-whispering-trees-180968084/

https://doorcountypulse.com/do-trees-talk-to-each-other/

6 – We next spoke about the meaning of the A small matter is, for example, halakhot that were ultimately formulated in the framework of the disputes of Abaye and Rava.

How can we term these as ‘small matter’ when the entire Sha”s is filled with the discussion of Abbaya and Rava? 

See the  בן יהוידע on our Gemore:

וראיתי בשער הגלגולים לרבינו האר”י ז”ל (בהקדמה ל”ו דף מ.) שכתב דאביי היה גלגול שלישי לנשמה שהיתה בריב”ז ולכך אמרו רז”ל על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ מִקְרָא וּמִשְׁנָה וכו’ וְהֲוָיוֹת דְּאַבַּיֵי וְרָבָא יעוין שם. והשתא לפי דברי רבינו האר”י ז”ל הנזכר מובן הטעם דקרי להוויות דאביי ורבא בשם ‘דָּבָר קָטָן’ כי הם של גלגול שלישי שהוא קטן לגבי רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ודו”ק.

 

See here from   צוואת הריב”ש. 

https://beta.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=16081&st=&pgnum=63

https://beta.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=16081&st=&pgnum=131

https://beta.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=16081&st=&pgnum=232

  ורבן  זכאי בן יוחנן עשה גם מהויות דאביי ורבא מעשה מרכבה

7- We concluded with final item in the Gemore: 

The Gemore relates that the Sages said of Yonatan ben Uzziel, the greatest of Hillel’s students, that when he sat and was engaged in Torah study, the sanctity that he generated was so intense that any bird that flew over him was immediately incinerated. 

Wildfire Background. Smoke In The Air, Fir Trees In Fire, Natural Disaster. Birds Flying Away From Flame Of Burning Forest Trees. Vector Illustration. Royalty Free Cliparts, Vectors, And Stock Illustration. Image 146427164.

Popular Jewish joke: 

3 student sitting in front of their Rebbe, a Chosid, a Yekke and a Litvisher and they get to Sukka 28a.  They all hear this fascinating story of the greatness of Reb Yonatan ben Uzziel. 

Their Rebbe asks each one of the three what their take is on this story –  any bird that flew over him was immediately incinerated. 

White painted white ceramic group of 3 Jews on a bench with their umbrellas - Collections Search - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

The Chosid: Wow! I’m amazed at the great level of קדושה his learning must have created to generate a fire that incinerated birds hovering above him.  

The Yekke: One needs to be careful when learning, least one go overboard and create a fire hazard that can cause damage to flying birds overhead . Additionally, what about צער בעלי חיים…..

The Litvisher: I’m thinking as to who is ultimately responsible to pay for the damaged birds. Was it Reb Yonasson’s direct cause and he would need to pay,  or was it indirect, גרמא….and he is פטור . 

 

 

 

Shiur Sukkah 27b 10/19/2021

BS”D

Suka 27 a-b.

Cheshvon 14, 5782. October 21, 2021

1- Continuing on the topic of  ‘ownership from zero to 100’.

No photo description available.

In regards to a Sukkah Reb Eliezer says that 100% ownership is needed. So sitting in a friend’s Sukkah is not sufficient. Even if he loans it to you for exclusive use.
מתנה על מנת להחזיר would work. Just Like by Esrog.

The Chachamim say, as such is the Halachah, that sitting in a communal or a borrowed Sukkah is fine.

Netivot Shalom Kids Sukkah Hop - Event - Netivot Shalom

2- We mentioned the Rebbe’s take on this.

Briefly, true, 100% ownership of Sukkah is indeed not needed. One can sit in a friend’s Sukah . סוכה שאולה ושל שותפין כשרה.
However, there is another issue and that is that a Sukkah needs to be תשבו כעין תדורו. It has to be like one’s house. It’s meant to be ‘liveable’ like his year round home.

And people don’t live year round in borrowed houses. Neither do they share homes.

So why should a Sukkah be any different?

Ideally, says the Rebbe, every one should have his own Sukkah.

PUTTING UP sukkot in Mea She'arim on October 2. (photo credit: YONATAN SINDEL/FLASH 90)

3- The Rebbe spoke once as to why we find a מגבית for the poor before פסח but not before ראש השנה or Sukkos. Lk 14, 373. Footnote 31.

His answer is that we don’t want to utter the words “poor” prior to ראש השנה and therefore no מגבית was established prior to these holidays.

In a footnote the Rebbe suggests another reason. Jewish poverty throughout the ages. Making a מגבית, expecting people to open their wallets large and wide more than once a year was very difficult. So they chose פסח.

The Rebbe continues that this pervasive poverty explains why not everyone has his own Sukkah when in reality, as above,  תשבו כעין תדורו, ideally each should have his own just as one has his own house.

Similarly the Rebbe explains, this is the reason why in many communities there would be only one communal Esrog. Surely, due to the ולקחתם לכם, each should have his own. It was the lack of funds that brought about this ‘Esrog of the many’.

The Birth And Afterlife Of Israel's Precious Etrog Fruit : The Salt : NPR

See also here LK 20, 267. Footnote 10.

The Rebbe also uses this concept to explain the Alter Rebbe about using a borrowed Sukkah.

LS 19, 348.

Interestingly, the AR adds the words that a borrowed Sukkah, סוכה שאולה, is fine, because ’it is like your one’.

Now a Sukkah does not need to be לכם. So what does this ‘like your own’ add?

Explains the Rebbe that since the lender of the Sukkah allows the user to use it as a Sukkah, and a Sukkah is like someone’s home, then he specifically allows him to use it ‘as his own’.

4- We mentioned the Ramo 658, 9 that writes that when the community buys an Esrog in ‘partnership’, everyone need to participate. However, the extra money needed to purchase a beautiful Esrog, that הידור falls upon the well to do more than the less fortunate!!!

הגה: וגובין מעות אתרוג לפי ממון דהדור מצוה מונח טפי על עשירים מעל עניים ואשה פטורה מליתן למעות אתרוג הואיל ואינה חייבת בו (תשובת מהרי”ל סימן י’). וכל אדם ישתדל ויהא זריז במצוה לקנות לו אתרוג ולולב לבד כדי לקיים המצוה כתקנה (הגהות מיימוני סוף הלכות לולב):

5- We learnt the Tosfos about a community Esrog, purchased in a partnership, the idea is that every participant grants each individual user (on the first day when making the brachah) his share. Thus the user, for that moment, owns the Esrog 100%.

Photos Of The Day: What A Lulav And Esrog! - The Yeshiva World

We mentioned the Magen Avrohom 658,10 that  it’s best to announce that every participant gives away his share when another community member uses it.

ולכן נ”ל שטוב להכריז שיתן כל א’ חלקו לחבירו במתנה כי בסי’ רכ”ו יש הרבה דיעות בזה ע”ש בב”י עמ”ש סוף סי’ זה:

6- We discussed the Rashi who writes that one cannot be considered an owner of an object that is worth less than a פרוטה. Anywhere from 0.10-0.20¢.

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Much has been written on this Rashi. Discussed the classic question of the Minchas Chinuch of how can a ערבה be לכם when at times it has a value of less than 0.10¢.

Two Dimes Photos - Free & Royalty-Free Stock Photos from Dreamstime

The Rebbe discusses this Rashi etc. in LS. 19, 348. Footnote 8.

7- We concluded with a quip on the הפטורה.

When Elisha came into the house, he saw the child lying dead on his bed.

So he went in and shut the door behind the two of them and prayed to Hashem.

Then he went up and lay on the child, putting his mouth on his mouth, his eyes on his eyes, and his hands on his hands.

And as he stretched himself upon him, the flesh of the child became warm.

Then he got up again and walked once back and forth in the house, and went up and stretched himself upon him. The child sneezed seven times, and the child opened his eyes.

The Shunamite Woman: A Model of Radical Empathy | My Jewish Learning

Sometimes we see a friend that is down, depressed and lonely, in poverty, can’t pay his rent. Almost lifeless.

He needs a ‘listener’ to hear out his issues and problems. He needs encouragement .

What do we do?

Putting his mouth on his mouth. We offer a hug and warmth.

It’s fine of course, and very necessary indeed. But ‘the child’ is still lifeless.

We take it a step further. His eyes on his eyes,

So one looks his friend in the eyes. He gives him the attention he lacks. He shows his concern.

All fine gestures. But the child is still lifeless.

Only one thing can help….

When we place  our hands on his hands, we give him  גשמיות, a few dollars so he can buy food for Shabbos.

 

Ah!

…and the child opened his eyes

 

Shiur Sukkah 27 a-b 10/12/21

BS”D

Sukkah 27 a-b. 

Cheshvon 6, 5782. October 12, 2021

1- Sholosh Se’Udos. We read the Tosfos that states unequivocally that one needs to eat bread for the third Shabbos meal. Fruits are insufficient to fulfill this obligation. 

Minhag Chabad is explained at length in a Sicha of the Rebbe. See here. LS 21, page 84. 

2- We began to delve into a deep and much written about topic in ראשונים and אחרונים. 

Namely – how does one define the concept of ownership in Halachah. 

As an introduction we mapped out the wide area of ‘ownership’ in הלכה. 

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Ranging from pure 100% ownership to the total opposite of non-ownership, like…. stealing. 

Stop Thief! Stock Photo - Alamy

Within this range, between these two pivots, are ‘other’ type of ownerships: Partnership, shares, temporary ownership, leasing, renting, borrowing, easements, right of first refusal etc. 

Share Holders Disputes

3- For starters, 100% ownership is caused by either inheriting something or purchasing it. 

The classic example where one needs 100% ownership is an Esrog. ולקחתם לכם ביום הראשון 

From Sukkot to morning-sickness: the magic of the etrog - Jewish World - Haaretz.com

Ownership of an Esrog needs to be, on the first day of Sukkos, 100%. Borrowing is less than 100% and therefore not sufficient. As it says ולקחתם לכם. 

We will discuss an Esrog owned  in a partnership and an Esrog that a Kehila purchases for all to use BLN next week. 

Runnings Layaway - Runnings

We mentioned that buying an Esrog on credit, according to some, is a bit of a ‘defect’. We thus find the Minhag of many to pay for the Daled Minim before Sukkos. Minhag Chabad is not to be particular on this. 

No Credit Please Don't Ask Labels, Pack of 5, SKU: LB-2764

And here’s to you Mr. Rubinson…

4- We related the story of Mr. Rubinson who sponsored the printing of the שדי חמד.

רבי חיים חזקיהו מדיני – אישי ישראל

At the special Farbrengen the Rebbe made upon its competition Mr. Rubinson asked the Rebbe to say something about the שדי חמד.

שדי חמד .קה"ת .ניו יורק תש"ט 1949 סט שלם ובכריכות מקוריות שלמות .יצא לאור בהוראת הרבי מלובויטש .מצב כללי טוב מאוד בחלק מהכרכים יש נגעי עש קלים בכריכה .

One volume was brought o the Rebbe who opened it at random. The page opened was a discussion about this very topic – if it is necessary to pay for the Daled Minim before Sukos.  See here.

קובץ:יוסף חיים רבינסון.jpg

יוסף חיים רבינסון

5- Continuing on this topic, ‘ownership from zero to 100’, we brought up מתנה על מנת להחזיר. Whereas the ,גמרא Kiddushin 6b, explicitly says that it is considered 100% ownership, we discussed if this can be understood in the modern world.

After all, how is it 100% yours if one must return it?

We suggested that this תנאי of returning can be viewed as an ‘outlier condition’ that does not affect the ownership. If the person did not return it then he must pay for something that was never his. If he does return it, as agreed, it retroactively places the object in his possession 100%. 

182 Speedometer At 100 Mph Stock Photos, Pictures & Royalty-Free Images - iStock

So much for the Esrog.

We began the sugya of ownership of a Suka. The Gemara brings the two opinions regarding the ownership of a Sukkah.  To be continued.

6- We discussed the opinion of Rebbi Elizezer that one cannot go Sukkah hopping on Sukkos. One must stay and use only his personal Sukkah all seven days. The reasons given are either it’s derived from the פסוק  or as not to embarrass the the Sukkah by leaving to another.

 

Shiur Sukkah 26b – 27a 10/05/2021

BSD

Sukkah 26b – 27a 

Tishrei 29, 5782. October 5, 2021

Welcome back. 

1- We began with the Mishna that relates two stories about eating in or outside a Sukah: 

מַעֲשֶׂה וְהֵבִיאוּ לוֹ לְרַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי לִטְעוֹם אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל, וּלְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל שְׁתֵּי כוֹתָבוֹת וּדְלִי שֶׁל מַיִם, וְאָמְרוּ, הַעֲלוּם לַסֻּכָּה. וּכְשֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי צָדוֹק אֹכֶל פָּחוֹת מִכַּבֵּיצָה, נְטָלוֹ בַמַּפָּה וַאֲכָלוֹ חוּץ לַסֻּכָּה, וְלֹא בֵרַךְ אַחֲרָיו:

Rabban Gamliel and Reb Yochanan ate food items that are not קובע inside a Sukkah, despite the fact that Halachically, one can eat them outside the Sukkah.

Reb Tzadok, ate less than a שיעור outside the Sukkah.

History of olives - Père Olive 

2- We scratched the surface on some topics of the long Tosfos. 

  • How much one needs to eat to be מחוייב to Bentch Min Hatorah. 
  • To make a ברכה אחרונה one needs to eat a כזית. However, Tosfos quotes the Yerushalmi that if one eats a בריה, a whole grape, a bean or pomegranate seed, a ברכה אחרונה is required even if it it’s less than a כזית. 
  • The הלכה is unclear and therefore the Alter Rebbe suggests that one should always eat more than a כזית of such בריהs. See here

3- The ברכה before eating has no שיעור as Rashi writes. Even a crumb requires a Brachah.

Crumbs Pictures | Download Free Images on Unsplash

אסור להנות מעולם הזה בלא ברכה. 

This is based on the Gemara in 35a ברכות

We discussed the Pnei Yoshua that writes a very fundamental point. “Some things are so obvious that the Torah has no need to say it, does not state it explicitly, but it is still מן התורה”.  

[We prefaced it by what Reb Elichaim Roitblat, the legendary מלמד of Oholei Torah, used to say: Vu shteit az men tor nisht kushen a katz in mitten Shmonei Esre……]

What Exactly is a Cat Kiss?

Since the Gemara says that making a Brachah prior to eating is a logical idea – for how can one eat something that belongs to Hashem without asking permission first, which is the actual ברכה – this reasoning creates a חיוב מן התורה! 

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May I have one please?

Meaning that ברכות הנהנין are MiDeoraisa. This novel idea generated much discussion amongst many אחרונים. We mentioned the Reb Akivah Eiger in Brachos 12a. concerning a ספק ברכות הנהנין. 

The Rebbe quotes this פני יהושע in regards to an idea concerning the the חינוך of a קטן.  See    26   ‘הע  , p65  לקוטי שיחות – לה

4- We continued to the next Mishna. 

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה סְעוּדוֹת חַיָּב אָדָם לֶאֱכֹל בַּסֻּכָּה, אַחַת בַּיּוֹם וְאַחַת בַּלָּיְלָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין לַדָּבָר קִצְבָה, חוּץ מִלֵּילֵי יוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג בִּלְבָד. וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, מִי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל לֵילֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן, יַשְׁלִים בְּלֵילֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, 

אֵין לַדָּבָר תַּשְׁלוּמִין, עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (קהלת א) מְעֻוָּת לֹא יוּכַל לִתְקֹן, וְחֶסְרוֹן לֹא יוּכַל לְהִמָּנוֹת:

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Reb Eliezer says that one must eat 14 meals during Sukkos. The חכמים counter that and say the one needs to eat only on the first night of Sukos. 

Reb Eliezer’s reason: תשבו כעין תדורו. A person usually eats two meals a day in his house. Ditto for Sukkos. 

The Chachamim’s reason: All of Sukkos, (except for the first night) one has to option of not eating at all- he can fast. Therefore there cannot be an obligation to eat in the Sukkah. 

The issues we discussed:

A– What about שלש סעודות on Yom Tov? If one needs to eat this 3rd meal then it would add up to 16 meals. One extra meal on the first and another on last day of Yom Tov. 

The מגן אברהם deducts from this that indeed, on Yom Tov, one has no obligation to eat שלש סעודות. 

However there is one Shabbos on Sukkos. So the שלש סעודות of Shabbos needs to eaten inside the Sukkah. So we are back to 15 meals on Sukkos?

One answer, from the חשק שלמה, is arrived at by him first asking another question. It says in the Mishna:

 רַבִּי  אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה סְעוּדוֹת חַיָּב אָדָם לֶאֱכֹל בַּסֻּכָּה, אַחַת בַּיּוֹם וְאַחַת בַּלָּיְלָה. 

Since the first Sukkos meal is at night, should he not have said אַחַת בַּלָּיְלָה and then אַחַת בַּיּוֹם? 

The answer is that Reb Eliezer agrees with the Chachamim concerning the first meal. He adds another 14. The 14 meals begin after the first one.

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So we have 13 for the rest of Sukkos (14 meals minus the first) and one extra on Shabbos for שלש סעודות , totaling 14! 

B- What did the Chachamim mean when they say that ‘one does not have an obligation to eat on Sukkos’? Is it not an obligation to eat סעודת יום טוב? 

Tosfos here actually says that there is no חיוב. The consequence of this ruling is that if one forgets to say יעלה ויבוא on Yom Tov there would be no need to repeat Bentching as there is no חיוב to eat bread on Yom Tov! 

We mentioned the Tosfos in ברכות that differ and say that one is indeed obligated to eat bread on Yom Tov. 49a. 

What the חכמים meant to say is that there is no obligation to eat in the סוכה (like the first night). But one still needs to eat פת on Yom Tov, because of Yom Tov. (albeit inside the Suka).   

That is the הלכה. See Alter Rebbe OC 639, 17. 

C- We discussed the בעל המאור who explains why we must eat in the Sukkah all 7 days on Sukkos but only need to eat Matzah on the first night of Pesach. 

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D– We spoke about the חזקוני who writes that although there is no חיוב to eat מצה except on the first night of פסח, one who does eat מצה all פסח is מקיים  a Mitzvah. 

Why no ברכה? Good question. 

5 – Don’t recall how we got to talk about a ממזר….. but we mentioned a common misconception (in my humble opinion) of Chabadniks concerning this topic. Based upon what the Alter Rebbe writes at the end of 7th Perek in Tanya some have the idea that תשובה does not help for this grave sin.

It’s incorrect. Teshuva does indeed work for someone who ר״ל caused a ממזר to be born. The ממזר raoming around  may be embarrassing for the repentant father, but his Teshuva is accepted. That is the simple פשט in the Gemara in Yevamos 22b.

וְהַאי בַּר תְּשׁוּבָה הוּא וְהָתְנַן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן מְנַסְיָא אוֹמֵר אֵיזֶהוּ מְעֻוּוֹת לֹא יוּכַל לִתְקוֹן זֶה הַבָּא עַל הָעֶרְוָה וְהוֹלִיד מִמֶּנָּה מַמְזֵר הַשְׁתָּא מִיהָא עוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֵׂה עַמְּךָ הוּא

The Gemara objects: Is he in fact able to repent after fathering a mamzer? Didn’t we learn in a mishna that Shimon ben Menasya says: Which is: “That which is crooked cannot be made straight” (Ecclesiastes 1:15)? This is referring to one who engaged in intercourse with a relative who is forbidden to him and fathered a mamzer with her. This implies that he has no possibility of achieving total repentance. The Gemara responds: At least now, after repenting, he is considered as one who acts according to the deeds of your people. Although he cannot totally rectify his transgression, his child is liable to receive punishment for cursing or hitting him.

What the AR writes is that as opposed to other sins, when doing proper תשובה, in addition to being forgiven, the sparks of קדושה that temporarily descended into קליפה, are elevated. 

Conversely the actual sin of creating a ממזר, can be wiped out thru proper תשובה. However, the sparks that were dragged down into this ממזר cannot be elevated since it has morphed into a human being. 

As the AR writes: 

וּבָזֶה יוּבָן מַאֲמַר רַזַ”ל7: “אֵיזֶהוּ מְעֻוָּת שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לִתְקֹן, זֶה שֶׁבָּא עַל הָעֶרְוָה וְהוֹלִיד מַמְזֵר”. שֶׁאָז גַּם אִם יַעֲשֶׂה תְּשׁוּבָה גְּדוֹלָה כָּל כָּךְ, אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַעֲלוֹת הַחִיּוּת לִקְדֻשָּׁה, מֵאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר יָרְדָה לָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְנִתְלַבְּשָׁה בְּגוּף בָּשָׂר וָדָם.

ומסיימים בטוב. א געזונטען ווינטער. 

 

See more here

Suka 26a (2)

BSD

Suka 26a (2)

Elul 23, 5781. August 31, 2021

1- Our Gemara discusses the issue of one who is ill and sitting in the Sukkah is painful for him. He is not obligated to sit in the Sukkah, and his aides are פטור  as well.

2- We briefly spoke about the idea of adhering to a doctor’s orders when not well. The Gemara in BK 85a based on the verse  ורפא ירפא rules that a doctor has permission to heal people.

דתניא דבי ר’ ישמעאל אומר (שמות כא, יט) ורפא ירפא מכאן שניתן רשות לרופא לרפאות

Discussed as why we need a פסוק to tell us that when it’s logical; just as much that one needs an architect’s services to design a building since he is an expert?

Many answers on this question including Rashi (in BK) that one can argue that since ailments come from Hashem, who are we to remove it. Or that perhaps a doctor can charge. Or that one must listen to the doctor’s instruction.

3- Mentioned the opinion of some ראשונים that doctors can and should only heal external wounds. They should never attempt to heal internal sicknesses and of course any procedure that is invasive. See here from the Evan Ezra Shmos 21, 19. See here from Rabeinu Bachya.

All You Need to Know About Internal Medicine | Internist

When the sages in Baba Kama 85 stated that the words ורפא ירפא in our verse constitute permission for a physician to practice his art they said so only in connection with externally visible injuries or symptoms of diseases; internal diseases, especially mental diseases are not subject to treatment by physicians of flesh and blood. They are the sole domain of the One who provides the soul to all living creatures. Rabeinu Bachya

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4- Gemara discusses sleeping and napping outside the Sukkah. We mentioned the question asked in Israel by a fellow that travelled daily by bus from Tel Aviv to Yerushalayim. Inevitably he would fall asleep. So what should he do on Sukkos when sleeping outside the Sukkah is prohibited? Should he stand?

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5- Sleeping in Tefillin. We discussed the question of Rabeinu Yona in Brachos and the Ritva in our Gemara.

How can one be allowed to sleep in tefillin, even for a few seconds, when at that time he is מסיח דעת from the תפילין?

They derive from this הלכה (that napping in Tefillin) that היסח הדעת in Tefillin does not mean a constant focus and concentration of the תפילין. One does not need to do that while wearing Tefillin. Being passive, such as discussing business, would be allowed.

Tefillin saves lives! | The Jewish Star | www.thejewishstar.com

What it does means is that doing something contrary to the respect of the Tefillin is prohibited. Such as cracking jokes or acting frivolously. That is היסח הדעת according to the רבינו יונה והריטב”א.

That is the accepted opinion as The Alter Rebbe writes 28,1. See below.

We mentioned that others argue and require constant concentration on the תפילין.  See שאגת אריה .

6- We discussed the reason behind the  Pri Megodim’s take that although נטילת לולב  and סוכה are both מצווה שבגופו, nevertheless, Suka is more so than Lulav.

7-  We mentioned the story of the Rebbe’s Siyum on סוכה and the highly charged moment when the Rebbe spoke about מרים בת בילגה.

See here, and many links in Hebrew. Great links here in English.

כתיבה וחתימה טובה לשנה טובה ומתוקה.

Does Judaism Belong in a Museum? | JewishBoston

—————–

כח דין חליצת התפילין ובו י’ סעיפים:
א אסור להסיח דעתו מהתפילין א כל זמן שהן עליו ב אפילו רגע אחד קל וחומר מציץ מה ציץ שאין בו אלא אזכרה אחת אמרה תורה ג והיה על מצחו תמיד שלא יסיח דעתו ממנו תפילין שיש בהן אזכרות הרבה על אחת כמה וכמה ואינו נקרא היסח הדעת אלא כשעומד בשחוק או בקלות ראש ד (או שמטריד דעתו כל כך לצרכי הגוף ה עד שלבבו פונה מיראת שמים ו מחמת טרדתו) אבל כשעומד ביראה ומתעסק בצרכיו ז אף על פי שעוסק במלאכתו ובאומנתו ואין דעתו על התפילין ממש אין זה נקרא היסח הדעת שאם לא כן איך יכול כל אדם לילך בתפילין כל היום ומכל מקום מצוה מן המובחר שלא להסיח דעתו מהן כלל ח זולת בשעת תלמוד תורה ט ובתפילת י”ח:

א) רבה בר הונא מנחות לו, ב. רמב”ם הל’ תפילין פ”ד הי”ד.

ב) וכ”ה בסדור ד”ה אסור להסיח.

ג) שמות כח, לח.

ד) הרב רבינו יונה ברכות כג, ב. רא”ש ברכות פ”ג סי’ כח. רא”ש הלכות תפילין סי’ כא. טור סי’ מד. מ”א סי’ מד ס”ק ב. וכ”ה בסידור שם. וראה גם לקמן רס”י מד. ועי’ לקו”ש חי”ד ע’ 151 ואילך. רשימת שיעורים (שבת) ע’ רמב ואילך.

ה) כן משמע ברמב”ם הלכות תפילין פ”ד הי”ג וטור ושו”ע סי’ לח סעיף ט ע”ש במ”א ס”ק יא וס”ק יב.

ו) משמעות הרב רבינו יונה ורא”ש.

ז) רבינו יונה והרא”ש שם.

ח) ב”ח סוף סי’ מד. מ”א סי’ מד ס”ק ב.

ט) האר”י בפע”ח שער התפילין פ”י ובשער הכוונות דרושי התפילין דרוש ה. וכ”ה בסידור שם.