Shiur ~ Celebrating 20 Years ~ Sukkah 38a. 05/25/22

BSD

Suka 38a

Iyar 15, 5782. May 25, 2022

Many topics discussed. 

1- The Mishnah says that ‘all day is Kosher for the Mitzvah of Lulav’. 

The question (Pnei Yehoshua)  is that it’s obvious as it says ולקחתם לכם ביום הראשון. 

lulav | GRACE in TORAH

יום means all day.  Why would we think any different?  

Here is the answer of the Chasam Soifer. But first:

Rabbeinu Tam - Wikidata

2- We discussed briefly the opinions of Rabbeinu Tam and the Geonim as to when בין השמשות  and צאת הכוכבים begin. 

The basics are as follows: First comes Shkia, followed by 18 minutes of  בין השמשות, (which is ספק יום ספק לילה) followed by night צאת הכוכבים, לילה. 

Jerusalem Painting: Sunset over Migdal David in Jerusalem - Alex Levin

The question is when exactly is Shkia? 

Briefly, say the sun dips below the horizon at 6:00 PM. That would be zero degrees. 

After sunset, the sun is below the horizon and its rays illuminate the sky overhead. The sky between the ground and the sun’s rays is in the Earth’s shadow. A twilight photometer measures the reduction in sunlight at the top of the Earth’s shadow as the sun continues to sink below the horizon. (The 

According to the Geonim 6:00 PM is the beginning of בין השמשות. That is when the sun dips further, from  zero to 6.5°.  

18 minutes later, when the sun is at about 6.5°  is  צאת הכוכבים and the beginning of night. 

So for people that follow the Geonim, at 6:18 PM is night for all practical purposes. מלאכה on Friday is strictly forbidden.  Etc.

However, according to Rabbeinu Tam, 6:00 PM, when the sun disappears below the horizon,  is only the beginning of Shkia. The ‘real’ Shkia begins only at 6:54 PM.

Until then it is still day time. יום ממש.

Best Astronomy Apps | Star Finder App | Star Map | Night Sky | Vito Technology

בין השמשות  only begins then, and continues for 18 minutes until 7:12 PM, or about 16.5°.

For people that follow Rabbeinu Tam, night only begins at 7:12 for all Miztvos such as Krias Shma and the start and ending of Shabbos or a fast day. 

See here for le’havdil secular definitions.

https://www.weather.gov/fsd/twilight

3 – We discussed that the Alter Rebbe in his Shulchan Aruch rules like Rabbeinu Tam!

It is only when the Siddur was published that the letter of the Alter Rebbe’s final ruling was publicized where he reverses himself and very clearly rules like the Geonim which is why we follow their ruling. 

[we touched briefly on the expressions used by the Alter Rebbe in this letter] 

3- We mentioned the Gemara in Zevachim that states (according to Rabeinnu Tam) that in the Beis Hamikdash ‘night’ began early. At the beginning of Shkia. Not at צאת הכוכבים. 

Temple of Solomon | Beit Hamikdash | Templo de Salomão - YouTube

Meaning that for example, in the Beis Hamikdash, all Mitzvos needed to be done before 6:00 PM even though nightfall begins 72 minutes later. Thus,  the time for the Mitzvah of Lulav in the בית המקדש ends at 6:00 PM, whereas outside the Beis Hamikdash, it only ends at 7:12. 

The Mitzva of Lulav applies in the בית המקדש (all seven days of Sukkos) and the rest of the world (just on the first day).  Both Mitzvos are derived from the same פסוק. 

Lulav And Etrog: Sukkot's Strange, Awesome Ritual (PHOTOS) | HuffPost Communities

Therefore, concludes the Chasam Sofer the Mishna must tell you that you the Lulav can be taken ‘all day’ meaning, until 6:54 and not as in the Beis Hamikdash. We should not err that we need to follow the time structure of the Beis Hamikdosh.  

4- The Mishna says that if an adult that cannot read הלל (or any other תפילה) and asks his wife, servant or son to read הלל for him, in order to be יוצא Hallel, he must repeat the words on his own. The reason is that since they are not מחוייב, listening to them despite שומע כעונה, is insufficient to be יוצא . 

A Rosh Chodesh Prayer | Jewish Community Watch

The Mishna concludes with a ‘curse’ – woe on to the person that does not know how to read!  Wow. 

We mentioned the interesting twist on this curse by Reb Pinchos of Frankfurt a תלמיד of the Maggid of Mezritch. 

He proposes in the  פנים יפות בחוקתי, that it’s actually a ברכה as the term used is תבוא מארה

We find that מארה means eating and not being satisfied. See Rashi בחקותי כו ,כו.

When a person is not satisfied after a meal his Bentching is only מדרבנן. Thus, if the father eats and will not reach כדי שביעה then his wife or son can indeed be מוציא him as they are both at the דרבנן level. 

So the ברכה is for the father never to eat כדי שביעה and his wife and son can Bentch for him.

5- We spoke about the powerful and general concept of ערבות. 

If, for example, the entire כלל ישראל was מקיים the Mitzvah of Lulav except for one single person, the result is that every individual of  כלל ישראל is Halachically still considered מחויב in the Mitzvah of Lulav. 

CONTENTS

When we approach this single Jew, this חיוב which is on us on us all, even allows us to make the ברכה for this single person. We can say וצונו even though we were already מקיים מצוות לולב!  

This amazing rule however, applies only if this person does not know how to say the ברכה himself. 

lulav-chabad-japan - Chabad Tokyo Japan

Why is that? What does the literacy of a person have to do with our Arvus? 

If he does not know how to make the ברכה are we not obligated, as above, in his Mitzvah of Lulav. 

The Avnei Nezer (OC 40, 4. CM 26) suggest that just like in a monetary case of ערבות the lender cannot approach the guarantor for payment of the loan prior to attempting to collect the debt from the borrower. Similarly, true, there is ערבות in מצוות, but first the one that is actually obligated needs to try on his own. Therefore if he can make the ברכה he must do it himself and not rely on another person to do it for him thru ערבות. 

We mentioned that the Alter Rebbe writes an interesting expression about this and perhaps that is what he meant. OC 272 KA 2

דבשלמא מי שיצא כבר ידי חובתו, שאינו מחוייב בדבר אלא מדין ערבות, לכן כיון שהחייב בעצמו יכול לפטור חובו בעצמו אין להערב לפוטרו,

6- הלל. We began to discuss (and will continue bl”n next week) the three stages in the method to say הלל. 

The original stage was for one person to say the entire הלל and the crowd would say הללויה . How many times did they repeat הללויה? 

‘123 times equal to the number of the years of Aharon HaKohen’. 

Mentioned briefly the Sicha of the Rebbe on this. LS 23. Mase 2. 

To be continued. 

Shiur Sukkah 37b-38a 05/17/22

BSD

Sukkah 37b – 38a

Iyar 16, 5782. May 17, 2022

1 – Mishna with instructions on נענועים. 

shaking a Lulav during the Festival of Sukkot. - Catholic Digest

2 – מנענע בהודו בתחילה ובסוף.  What is the meaning at the ׳beginning and the end of הודו׳?

It can mean the beginning and the end of chapter 118 in Tehillim that begins and ends with the same פסוק- 

 הודו לה׳ כי טוב כי לעולם חסדו. Rashi. 

Or it can mean at the and beginning of the first פסוק. Tosafos in the name of יש מפרשים.

Mentioned in passing the תהלים is the only Sefer in תנ”ך that its chapters – פרקים are mentioned in Sha”s.

The פרקים of the rest or Tanac”h were created by a non Jewish printer.

3- We discussed what the  נענועים actually are. The movement to four sides and up and down or the just the shaking/wiggling of the לולב. Or perhaps both. 

Close-up of hands of a worshiper performing the ritual of shaking the lulav and etrog, traditionally performed during the Jewish holiday of Sukkot, Lafayette, California, October 20, 2019. Courtesy TH Productions Stock

4- Spoke about the ‘pointing the Lulav in 6 directions’. What does one do with the מוריד, which means downward? 

See here in the Ramo 651, 9 that it means literally turning the Lulav upside down pointing down! And he adds, that despite the opinion of others not to do it, וכן עיקר! 

If the Ramo says that that is the way to do it ….. picture his entire shul in Cracow pointing their Lulovim towards the ground. Would make a great photo.

Remah Synagogue - Wikipedia

Ramo shul

No. I'm not trading my etrog & luvav for an apple & maple leaves | by Gedalyah Reback | Medium

The accepted מנהג is stretch out our hands with the Lulav facing up  towards the floor. The Alter Rebbe in his Siddur writes ולא שיהפך ח”ו ראש הלולב למטה.  

 

From the Siddur

5 – Discussed in how many directions we move the Lulav to. Our Minhog is to four direction (SNEW) and up and down for a total of six. 

An Introduction to Positional Tracking and Degrees of Freedom (DOF)

The Tur 651, quotes others that only do only four – 2 towards front and back and up and down. Their reason in that the moving it in four directions (SWEW) looks like a cross!!! 

The Tur however says that on the contrary, doing only front, back, up and down looks like a cross. By doing four direction (SWEW) and then adding up and down does not seems like a cross. 

6 – We moved on to the next Mishna about the time frame for ד׳ מינים. 

7 – The Gemara compares Davening Minchah with the shaking of the Lulav. Whereas the first in מדרבנן the latter one is מדאורייתא.

Bethany S. Mandel on Twitter: "Davening mincha on the White House lawn. What a shot. What a day. https://t.co/rvTu7xB4BZ" / Twitter

Minchah

We discussed the famous Machlokes of the Rambam and the Ramban if תפילה is מן התורה. 

The Rambam writes  explicitly that Davning once a day in surely מן התורה. 

 

The  Ramban argues and says that we find places in Sha”s that clearly say that Davening is מדרבנן. One place is our Gemore in Suka 38, a. 

We discussed the answer of the Kesef Mishneh that Mincha is in indeed מדרבנן even according to the Rambam …since one has already davened שחרית!

8- Spoke about the Gemara’s expression about Chol Hamoed –  יום טוב שני דרבנן. Is Chol Hamoed is יום טוב טוב? 

Shabbat Chol Hamoed - Jewish Holidays

More next week בל”נ. 

 

Shiur Sukkah 37b 05/11/22

BS”D

Sukkah 37b

Iyar 9, 5782. May 11, 2022

1- We continued with the topic having direct contact to the Lulav with out any חציצה. 

Mentioned the רמ”א that says it’s preferable that one remove his Tefillin (and ring) before shaking the lulav since the רצועות on his palm or finger  will be a חציצה. OC 651, 7. In regards to Tefillin, he was referring to the  מנהג אשכנז to don them on חול המועד.  

אם עשה בית יד ונתן בו הלולב ונטלו, שפיר דמי, דלקיחה ע”י דבר אחר שמה לקיחה, ובלבד שיהא דרך כבוד; אבל אם אינו דרך כבוד, כגון שנתן הלולב בכלי, ונטלו, לא יצא; ואם כרך עליו סודר, ונטלו או שכרך סודר על ידו, ונטלו, י”א דלא יצא:

הגה – ונהגו להחמיר להסיר התפילין (מהרי”ל) וטבעות מידם, אבל מדינא אין לחוש הואיל ואין כל היד מכוסה בהן (אגודה פ’ מקום שנהגו):


[Note: The full Chapter # 651 in the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch did not reach us]. 

Jewish Orthodox Boy Tefillin Hadas Myrtle Stock Photo 1416161933 | Shutterstock

2- Loose leaves inside the ‘bouquet’ of the Lulav. Whether from the הדסים or ערבות or loose branches of the Lulav itself. The Halacha is that it is not a problem since מין במינו אינו חוצץ.

Lulav Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | Shutterstock

3 –  A lefty, switches and holds the Lulav in his left hand according to Ashkenazim as the Ramo writes. Sephardim follow the Shulchan Aruch and a lefty does  not switch hands.  OC 651, 3.

Should You Become a Switch Hitter? | SportRx

4- What about an ambidextrous person? See above that he takes the Lulav in his right hand. 

What Are Tefillin? - Tefillin

Ambidextrous

We mentioned the Machlokes about a Kohen who is ambidextrous. A lefty Kohen cannot do the עבודה. But what if he has equal use of both hands? 

Blessings from Heaven Through the Priestly Blessing | Hoshana Rabbah BlogHoshana Rabbah Blog

Mishna בכורות ז, ו.

וְהַשּׁוֹלֵט בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו – רְבִּי פּוֹסֵל, וַחֲכָמִים מַכְשִׁירִין. 

The Gemore explains the reasoning for these two opinions. 

Rebi says that such a Kohen has a weak right hand. Meaning he is a double lefty.
The Chachamim say on the contrary, an ambidextrous person has a strong left hand. 

5- The Gemara discusses the smelling of the הדס or the Esrog on Yom Tov. 

See here that both are prohibited. The TA”Z adds that ‘those that smell the Esrog when holding it are practicing a מנהג שטות!’

Lulav Stock Photos, Royalty Free Lulav Images | Depositphotos

6- We spoke about the smelling of items that are אסור בהנאה. Mentioned the ראשונים that make a distinction between items that are made for scenting, such as בשמים versus items that are made primarily for eating such a bread. 

Read the text of the Shach (YD 108, 13) that does not accept this distinction and prohibits the smelling of all איסורים. 

PETER LUGER STEAK HOUSE, Brooklyn - Williamsburg - Menu, Prices & Restaurant Reviews - Tripadvisor

The Alter Rebbe accepts his opinion and writes that on Pesach one should not inhale the scent of Chometz from a non Jew

A man sweeps outside a bakery, New York, NY, USA, 1996 by Steve McCurry | Ocula

7- The Gemore discusses smelling an Esrog or הדס on Shabbos while it is still attached to the tree. 

Corsican Citron - Oscar Tintori - Nurseries Worldwide - Citrus Plants

Rashi says that biting into a fruit when it is still on the tree is ‘the epitome of תולש ‘. We discussed if this is מדאורייתא or מדרבנן since is not the usual way one picks fruit off a tree.

604 Bite Apple Tree Photos - Free & Royalty-Free Stock Photos from Dreamstime

See מגן אברהם   

336,11. 

Alter Rebbe:

The Gemore in Shabbos says that writing with one’s mouth is שלא כדרך and not considered writing. We mentioned the query of Reb Zvi Pesach Frank who discusses ‘speaking into a phonograph if that is considered writing’. 

Edison Speaks Into a Phonograph, 1888 | PBS LearningMedia

See here

8- We began the next Mishna concerning נענועים. 

More on this next week. 

9 – Story of the פריץ telling his Yid friend who was allowed by his קהילה to blow the Shofer only after נעילה

  !!אז דו האלסט שוין דעם שופר –  בלאז’. 

Yom Kippur 2018: How is Yom Kippur celebrated? When does the day end? - Mirror Online

10 Story of the Rebbe’s painting and it’s aftermath, from an Indian’s office to 15th floor in Rockefeller Center. There has been a sighting. 

Shiur Sukkah 37a 05/03/22

BSD

Suka 37a

1- We finished discussing the opinion of Reb Yehudah that one must use the ד’ מינים for the Schach. So evergreen and bamboo cannot be used. 

Wall Mural BAMBOO WALL - PIXERS.US

The Difference Between Evergreens and Conifers

But how can one use an Esrog for סכך? An Esrog is a fruit and is מקבל טומאה? Answers of the כפות תמרים (it refers to the wood of the tree) and  ערוך לנר   (using an Esrog that was not  מוכשר לקבל טומאה).

These 7 citrus tree varieties will make a great addition to your yard | HappySprout

2- The next piece of Gemore touches upon two big topics of חציצה and נטילה על ידי דבר אחר. The opinions of Rabah and Rava. 

3 – חציצה. 

Are the rings that bind the Lulav considered a חציצה? Meaning that the hand of the Lulav holder is not actually touching the Lulav. Just as a חציצה in regards to טבילה that does not allow the water to touch the skin under a band aid. 

How to tie your Lulav - YouTube

Rabbah says one must hold the Lulav directly. The rings must be placed a bit higher to allow the hand to touch the actual Lulav. Even though the rings are made from the Lulav leaves, and it is מין במינו, Raba does not allow it. 

Rava says that since rings add beauty the Lulav, it is בטל to the Lulav and therefore not considered a חציצה. 

4 – נטילה על ידי דבר אחר. 

Gloves - Torah Musings

Holding the Lulav with a towel or scarf. 

Rabbah says one must hold the Lulav directly. Rava says that it is OK. 

Is that the same concept as חציצה ? Or perhaps since the scarf is on one’s hand it is to be viewed as a glove – an extension of the hand and perhaps not considered a חציצה. The only issue is that one is holding the Lulav על ידי דבר אחר.

We discussed the ראשונים on this topic. 

5- In general, the idea of doing a Mitzvah על ידי דבר אחר , is a wide topic. 

Some examples discussed:

  • A Dayan needs to hear a יבמה say that the יבם does not want to marry her. What if this Dayan is hard of hearing and can only hear with a horn that amplifies the sound? Is that שמיעה על ידי דבר אחר?

The History of Hearing Aid Technology

We mentioned the Tzemach Tzedek that discusses this. Here

  • One must be able to hear the מלך speak at the הקהל gathering. If not, he is פטור. Will a horn work? A hearing aid?
  • Mitzvos that need to be seen – like the עדים witnessing the קידושין. Can they wear glasses to see the חתן כלה? Through a glass window? A telescope from a mile away? 

Unrecognizable female hiker with trekking stick looking through binocular telescope while standing on green meadow near

6- Rava’s words (something that adds beauty cannot be considered a חציצה) was the basis of the huge מחלוקת of previous generations regarding the parchment of a Sefer Torah that was ‘shmeared’, coated with a thin white film to make the surface smooth and uniform. 

Sefer Torah Shmeared with log

See here Ben Ish Chai, Torah Leshma, 243:

[Mentioned that if you ever pick up an old Sefer Torah and it seems very heavy it probably has the coat that was applied to it, adding many pounds]. 

The logic to allow it is, based on the Rovo above, that since this film adds beauty to the קלף is is בטל to it. 

פנים מאירות ג, לב. 

The Rabbonim that prohibited it claimed that this glazed film applied to the parchment was not בטל to the Sefer Torah and the letters written are on the film and not ‘on’ the Torah.