Shiur Sukkah 26a – 08/24/2021


Suka 26a

Elul 16, 5781. August 24, 2021

1- Continuing on the topic of topic of העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה

We discussed the query of Reb Elchanon (BB 48, a) on the meaning of פטור. Does it mean a full complete פטור? Or is it just a ‘pass’; meaning that in reality he is obligated, but since he is occupied with another מצווה, he is allowed to pass this מצווה…? 

The difference would be with מצוות that have תשלומין. If one does not perform them at the correct right time, he is given a chance to do it at a later time. תשלומין

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An example is הבדלה. If one does not have wine on מוצאי שבת then he can do הבדלה until Tuesday. 

Now if someone was very busy on מוצאי שבת with raising funds for פדיון שבויים and simple did not have the time to make הבדלה, can he do it on Sunday? 

If we say that he was פטור completely, then there would not be any תשלומין. On the other hand, if it was only a ‘pass’ or deferment then he should make הבדלה when his time frees up. 

Havdalah |

2- Our Gemore discussed the obligation of an אבל ר”ל  to be in a Sukkah. The reason being is that despite the אבל’s mental turmoil, the Mitzvah of Sukkah should be able to bring about a certain level of focus to the אבל to spend time in the Sukkah. See last week’s shiur. 

 We mentioned the ספר  called תניא רבתי written by an unknown author. 

Interesting that we find numerous ספרים authored by the ראשונים that we have no clue at all (or there is uncertainty or doubt) as to its author. 

The famous one amongst them is the popular ספר החינוך

Perhaps it is a result of the first couple of pages of books that fray first. 

The Tanya writes that an אבל that was very much connected to a particular person who is deceased, can find a leniency and not obligating him to sit in a Sukkah. 

The Alter Rebbe, OC 640, 13, quotes this opinion. Here

כגון שהמת חביב לו מאוד ויש לו צער בסוכה שאינו יכול להיות טרוד שם באבלות כמו בביתו שישב שם בדד פטור מן הסוכה

3- We spoke about the various opinions about taking a trip on סוכות to a location that will not have a Sukkah

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The question is based on the Rashi that says the פטור of ‘travelers are פטור from סוכה’. Rashi says that the purpose is לסחורה – commerce. Meaning that there is a ‘need’,  just like commerce. 

Is taking ones children on a trip a ‘need’ similar to a business trip? Perhaps not. One can say that all business trips are ultimately to ‘take kids on a trip’! 

Great Adventure: How a NJ amusement park goes Orthodox for Passover | The Times of Israel

On the other hand, a business trip is time sensitive. Trips of enjoyment can be done after Sukkos.  

4- We spoke about מצטער פטור מן הסוכה. That is only if the Sukkah was built in a way and location that was usable and comfortable. If and when unforeseen circumstances create a situation that would cause pain and/or discomfort to sit in the Sukkah, then one is indeed  מצטער פטור מן הסוכה. 

However, if one builds a Sukkah לכתחילה is such a place that is unusable, (such as in an unsafe area where sleeping there at night is not advisable) then he must eat in such a Sukkah despite his discomfort.

See the words of the Alter Rebbe. 640,6.

איזהו מצטער  זה שאינו יכול לאכוללג או לישן בסוכה מפני הרוח שמצערו או מפני הזבובים והפרעושיםלה וכיוצא בהן או מפני ריח רע שמריחין בתוך הסוכה וכשיצא ממנה ינצל מכל אלו.

במה דברים אמורים שנולד לו הצער במקרה אחר שעשה שם הסוכה אבל אם עשה סוכה במקום שידוע לו שיצטער אח”כ בה כגון שעשה במקום שהרוח מצויה ושולטת שם ואפילו עשה במקום שלא יהיה לו צער באכילה אלא שיהיה לו צער בשינה כגון שעשה ברחוב שאי אפשר לו לישן שם בנחת מחמת מורא הגנבים והליסטים הרי סוכה זו פסולה ואינו יוצא בה אפילו באכילה אף על פי שאין לו צער כלל בה לפי שכל סוכה שאינו יכול לאכול ולשתות ולטייל ולישן בה בנחת בלא שום צער אינה נקראת דירה כלל לפי שאינו דומה לביתו שיכול לעשות שם כל צרכו בנחתמב.

אבל מי שעשה סוכה ברחוב ואינו מתיירא בנפשו לישן שם בלילה אע”פ שמתיירא שלא יגנבו כלי תשמישו שבסוכה הרי זו כשרה שהרי היא ראויה לו לדירה כיון שאינו מתיירא לישן בה וכלי תשמישו יכול להכניסן בלילה לתוך הבית.

ומכל מקום לכתחלה אין לעשות סוכה ברחוב כמו שנתבאר בסי’ תרל”ז ע”ש

5- Form here we moved on to discuss the issue of a Sukkah that is on the street or on any public property. See here.

Kosher Restaurants with Sukkot: Global List 2014 • YeahThatsKosher

6- We discussed an interesting question of the Pri Megodim. OC, AA 691. If one finds himself in a peculiar position on the first night of Sukkos. He needs to choose to either sit in a Sukkah tonight, but by doing that, he will be unable bench Lulav and Esrog tomorrow morning. Or forgo the sitting tonight and get to a place where he will be able to bentch Lulav. Both Mitzvos are מן התורה .  What should one do? 

Stream Dilemma (n) a situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two different things by Media Learning English | Listen online for free on SoundCloud

We spoke about brilliant point from the Pupa Rebbe שו”ת ויען יוסף. OC. 389. Reb Yosef Greenwald had a very tragic life but miraculously rebuilt it after WW2. See here.  

Pupa Rebbe Yosef Greenwald.jpg

His point: מצטער is פטור מן הסוכה. So if he will sit in the Sukkah, he will have צער that he cannot be מקיים Lulav and Esrog! ‘The pain of the soul is like the pain of the body’. 

So he is פטור מסוכה. He should therefore go for the Lulav. 

Debatable but interesting. 

A Gut Yor to all. 







Shiur Sukkah 25b, 08/17/21


Suka 25b

Elul 9, 5781. August 17, 2021

1- Continued on the topic of העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה

The Gemara brings 3 cases proving that when occupied with doing one Mitzva one is פטור from doing another Mitzva. 

The Things They Carried — The Jewish Studio

One case is from the people that were in charge of handling the casket that contained the bones of יוסף (which they carried out from מצרים as per his request). They were aware that handling the casket, meaning remaining in a state of טומאה, would preclude them from participating in the קרבן פסח. The fact that they chose this option shows that while being busy with one מצוה, they were not obligated to be concerned with another upcoming מצוה.  

This was despite, as Rashi points out, that the קרבן פסח is a much more ‘important’ מצוה than the one they were doing! 

2- We mentioned the צמח צדק OC 113, the quotes this Rashi in regards to a totally different situation.

If one finds himself in the middle of שמונה עשרה, and realizes that the only way he will be able to answer נקדישך is by skipping על הניסים. What does he do? 

Shuckling: Why Do Jews Rock While Praying? - The Swaying Candle - Prayer

The  צמח צדק discusses that saying נקדישך, according to some opinions is מן התורה!! since it sanctifies Hashem. On the other hand, saying על הניסים, important as it is, does not equal to saying נקדישך. So perhaps one should skip it. 

However, based on our Rashi, we see that one does not calculate מצוות this way. Doing a ‘lesser’ מצוה now outweighs a ‘more important’ מצוה in the future. 

3- We spoke again about the תקנה of the רמב״ם, in regards to חזרת הש״ץ.

Menachem Butler on Twitter: "and from that above article by Rabbi Neches, here is the photo of Chazzan Yossele Rosenblatt, wrapped in his prayer shawl and phylacteries, supposedly the only time that

Mentioned the humorous response from Chazzan Yossele Rosenblatt as to why he charges more in comparison to another famous Chazzan. “I am paid for saying the (quite)  שטילער שמונה עשר as well”. 

Poster [2017-8-47]: [Congregation Glory of Israel… [Zavel]… | Flickr

 4- The Gemara talks about the obligation of an אבל ר״ל to sit in a Sukkah. 

We discussed the 2 stages of mourning. אונן is only for the day of the passing of the deceased and the rest of the שבעה when one is a אבל

How I Managed a Very Awkward Shiva Call - Sukkot, Hoshana Rabbah & Simchat Torah

An אונן is פטור from all מצוות. 

We related the encounter between the Rebbe and JB Soloveitchik in 1964 when the Rebbe sat shiva for his mother Rebbetzin חנה ע״ה. 

The Rebbe mentioned that the Rambam’s opinion, in one location,  is that the status of an אונן is only until after the burial.

JB responded that there is no such a Rambam and the Rebbe told him that it is in פירוש המשניות. A few days later the Rebbe wrote to him that interestingly, there is the original manuscript where the Rambam wrote, as above. He then crossed it off and wrote that אנינות continuous until nightfall.  

The letter: 

Odly, one of his students writes the story someone differently. See below. 

5- The Gemara discussed that despite מצטער פטור מן הסוכה, an אבל is obligated to sit in a Sukkah. 

Why would one think differently?

What happens if one’s Sukkah is swarmed by bees or it is excessively hot? Obviously, he may leave and eat in his house. 

Bees Flying, Close-up View, Slow-motion Stock Footage Video (100% Royalty-free) 1052957507 | Shutterstock

However, if his house is also infested with bees or just as hot and leaving his Sukkah does not help him he may not leave his Suka. 

The יראים writes this rule that מצטער does not apply in such a case.  

So why would an אבל not be obligated to sit and mourn in his Sukkah?  What does he have in house that alleviates his pain and mourning more than in his Suka? 

The רא״ש writes that an אבל, by nature likes to be in solitude. Being inside a home gives him more privacy. So one would say that he is allowed to sit home alone. 

[We quipped about the ‘Chairman” who came to the office with one black and one brown shoe] 

Rare image of the first ever recording of Memri TV where a Syrian man bangs his shoe at the French giving away Antioch to the Turks.: SyrianCirclejerkWar

I have a pair just like this at home!

6- Mentioned the חידושי הרי״ם, who poses a question about the time when בני ישראל received the מן. 

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If everyone received the מן that totally satisfied hunger, additionally,  any taste one would think of would be felt it in his mouth….. Then what was the צדקה וחסד they practiced for the 40 in the desert? Everyone had everything! 

His answer: When the poor man received the מן what would he think of? Herring and bread? A better herring? What did he know about epicurean delicacies? 

Still life of Herring on a Plate with a Bread Roll a Glass of Beer and an Onion Painting by Adriaen Coorte

That is where the חסד of the well and more fortunate kicked it. They would patiently explain to him that one needs to think about foie gras….. . 



– מפניני הרב 257

Shiur Sukkah 25a-b, 8/10/21


Suka 25a-b

Elul 2, 5781.  August 10, 2021

1- We continued on the topic of העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה.

Discussed the ר”ן that places the emphasis on the word עוסק. Meaning not just simple מקיים מצוה. One needs to be a actively involved and preoccupied with one מצוה to be פטור from performing another. 

Brain Teasers - Puzzles by Puzzle Prime

2- We brought up a brain teaser.  Think! 

Preface: העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה

The פני יהושע says that there is a difference between someone that is busy with a מצוה and therefore could not eat מצה on Pesach to one that is busy with a מצוה and ate outside the Sukkah. [Both instances on the first night] 


Whereas on Pesach he was מבטל the מצווה passively, he simply didn’t eat מצה,  Sukkos, on the other hand, he was מבטל the מצוה with a positive action. He ate outside the Sukkah. 

Interfaith dinner offers up customs of Jewish holiday

The 7 days of Sukkos are split into two time zones. The first night versus the rest of the 7 days. See the מנחת חינוך from a previous shiur 

One must eat in a Sukkah on the first night. For the rest of the Yom Tov there is no obligation to eat in a Sukkah. One can fast, drink water or eat fruits that do not require being inside the Sukkah. Only if one wants to eat a סעודה then he is obligated to do so in a Sukkah. So the מצווה on the other days in not to eat outside the Sukkah. 

Why do Jews erect booths during Sukkot? - Jewish World -

Sukkos in Yerushalayim

Generally, a מצוות עשה is a positive commandment. One needs to do it. In other words, a מצוות עשה is a קום ועשה.

If one does not perform it, he transgresses by simply sitting back and not doing it. Like eating Matzah or Putting on Tefillin. A positive action to perform and a שב ואל תעשה to not perform. 

Similarly, eating in a Sukkah on the first night, requires is a positive action. One must go into the Sukkah to perform this מצוה. That’s simple enough. 

Sukkah Stock Footage ~ Royalty Free Stock Videos | Pond5

Now, what about if one eats outside a Sukkah on the first night? He obviously was not  מקיים the מצוה of Sukkah. But how do we view this ביטול המצוה? 

The פני יהושע says it is ביטול המצוה by a positive action קום ועשה because he ate outside a Sukkah. 

Reb Akiva Eiger disagrees. He says that eating outside the Sukkah on the first night of Sukkah is ביטול המצוה in a passive action. ביטול המצוה בשב ואל תעשה. The reasoning is that the מצווה is to eat in a Sukkah. And that he didn’t do. The fact that he ate outside the Sukkah is just the reason that he wasn’t מקיים the מצווה. He ate his meal in the wrong place. 

Let’s think – As Yanki Teitekbaum pointed out, if one eats a full meal on the first night in a Sukkah and then eats another meal outside the Sukkah, he was מקיים the מצווה with the first meal. The second meal, although very wrong to do so, has nothing to do with the positive מצווה of eating in a Sukkah. 

Sukkah Dining: Moroccan Fava Bean Soup with Harissa — Jewish Food Society

It would work in reverse as well. If one eats a full meal on the first night outside a Sukkah and then eats another meal inside the Sukkah, he was מקיים the מצווה with the second meal. The first meal, although very wrong to do so, does not negate that he was מקיים the מצווה with the second meal.

3- Speaking of העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה we discussed if this applies to ‘more important’  Mitzvos in relation to ‘less important’ ones. 

We mentioned the responsa of the Radvaz (4, 13) who was a Rav in Egypt and Yerushalayim. Some say that the Ariza’l was his student.

[He is famous for reinstating חזרת הש”ץ in Egypt many years after the Rambam abolished it. We mentioned this in the past.

See here in Hebrew. And an excellent article here.

English version.

The Radvaz was asked about an unfortunate Jew that was imprisoned and was granted permission for a furlough for just one day a year. What day should he choose?

The Radvaz disagreed with others who said the he should choose פורים or any other ‘important’  מצווה that he was unable to do behind bars.

Pin on freed

His opinion was that he should choose the first possible מצווה that came his way. Even if it seems like a small or of ‘lesser importance’. Foe one should not be the judge on the importance of any mitzvah in comparison to another. 

4- We spoke about the Gemara’s question of who was טמא when the second פסח came around causing them to be unable to participate in the קרבן פסח. 

The obvious question is: With a few million people at the time, it would be inevitable that one would pass away from מתן תורה until the second קרבן פסח came around. So what is the Gemar’s question? 

We mentioned the פנים יפות. Bamidbor 9. He quotes a מדרש  that no one passed away from Yom Kippur of the first year when the first count occurred until Iyar of the second year when the second count was made. 

But see Rashi Shmos 30 :16. 

To be continued BL”N.

5- The ‘vort’ on וַיְעַנְּךָ וַיַּרְעִבֶךָ וַיַּאֲכִלְךָ אֶת הַמָּן 

 ומסיימין בטוב. 


Suka 24b-25a


Suka 24b-25a

Menachem Av 25, 7581.  August 3, 2021

Topics discussed:

1- Using trees as the walls of a Sukkah. Tying the branches so they do not sway. 

2 – Canvas Sukkahs. What is considered ‘swaying’?

Easy-to-assemble, stable sukkah designs: Judaism

See Here

3 – Our Gemara cites a case of trees that have overhanging branches and leaves that reach the ground creating a רשות היחיד beneath them. : Red Japanese Maple Tree - Live Plant Shipped 1 Foot Tall by DAS Farms (No California) : Maple Trees : Garden & Outdoor

Japanese Maple


Should I Plant a Weeping Willow? - Bower & Branch

Weeping Willow Tree

4- קרפף שאינו מוקף לדירה

This is a big topic of which we scratched the surface. 

In short, a קרפף  refers to a large area that has full 4 walls surrounding it – meaning that מן התורה it is a רשות היחיד. 

הרב פנחס יוסף אקרב, עירובין דף סז (בשילוב תמונות ואיורים להמחשה)

However, this area of 75’ x 150’ or larger, if it is not designated for human habitation/living, like a yard or playground, the חכמים forbade one from carrying in it. In square feet it come out to about 9,400 sf. 

קרפף שאינו מוקף לדירה

What area is considered a דירה  and what is not?

The typical example of such an area, that is ‘not made for living’, not a דירה,  is a vegetable patch or an orchard. 

Enclosed vegetable garden - Rustic - Landscape - Minneapolis - by Landsburg Landscape Nursery | Houzz

This creates a myriad of issues: What about a baseball or tennis court? Zoos, stadiums or botanical gardens?

Walled garden - Wikipedia

What if in middle of a enclosed area (like in a summer colony) there is a large vegetable patch? If this patch does not have its own מחיצה is this קרפף מבטל the entire ערוב? 

There are many opinions on the status of such a קרפף. 

5 – After learning 25 daf about the structure of the Sukkah and the Schach, we began with the Mishnah that deals with the obligation to sit in a Sukkah. 

6- We observed that the Mishnah begins not with ‘who and when’ one is obligated to sit in a Sukka but with the negative, of who is not obligated to do so and also that eating or drinking ארעי is permitted outside the Sukkah!

7- We spoke about the העוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה.  

Pin on End-Time Battle for the Temple Mount

This too is a wide ranging topic we will BL”N continue learning about. 

Here are the points we began to discuss:

A- The two opinions if one has the ability to perform both מצוות. Does he have an obligation to do so? Rashi, Tosfos and the Ran. 

B- Assuming it applies only to when he can only do one, then why would we need a פסוק to teach us that one needs to continue to perform Mitzvah A and not drop it and switch to Mitzvah B? Why is B more important than A? 

Merav Michaeli מרב מיכאלי on Twitter: "… "

C- Why did Rebbi, who organized the Mishnayos, wait until מסכת סוכה, to write this Halachah? Why not in מסכת פסחים that precedes סוכה?