Pesach 5781 -2021 03/16/2021

בס”ד 

Pesach 5781 -2021

to all חג כשר ושמח

חג פסח כשר ושמח

See the Gemara below. 

Topic: The story with the Bnei Beseira and Hillel – Bringing a Korbon Pesach on Shabbos

1Who were the Bnei Beseira? 

Maharsha. Reb Yehuda, Reb Shimon Reb Eliezer. 

2-  Greatness of the בני בתירה that relinquished their positions. 

How to know when it's time to resign - and how to leave well | Michael Page

Yerushalmi:

שלשה הניחו ב”ד בעוה”ז וירשו להם חיי עוה”ב, ואלו הן יונתן בן שאול ור’ אלעזר בן עזריה וזקני בתירא דשדין גרמא מן נשיותא ומנוני’ נשיא:  

כל מה שיאמר לי אדם לעשות אני עושה, חוץ ממה שעשו זקני בתירה לזקני (הלל), שויתרו על הנשיאות ומינו אותו לנשיא עליהם (ירושלמי כתובות ו:ג).

Rebi, who was the Nasi,  once said “Anything I am told I would do, anything except what the בני בתירא did! 

2How could they forget? 

A– Yerushalmi: 

ת”ר הלכה זו נתעלמה מבני בתירא כו’. ירושלמי אמר ר’ אבין והלא אי אפשר לשני שבועות שלא יחול ארבעה עשר בשבת ולמה נעלמה הלכה מהם כדי ליתן גדולה להילל. שלשה הניחו ב”ד בעוה”ז וירשו להם חיי עוה”ב ואלו הן יונתן בן שאול ור’ אלעזר בן עזריה וזקני בתירא דשדין גרמא מן נשיותא ומנוני’ נשיא: 

It was predestined for them to forget to bring about the leadership of Hillel.  

University of Miami Hillel

B –  Pnei Yehoshua. Meshech Chochma. They knew that it was OK to Shecht it. What was forgotten was if burning it on the Mizbeach was permitted on Shabbos or perhaps they should do it after Shabbos. 

פני יהושע פסחים סו א :  אלא דמה שנתעלמ’ מב”ב היינו לענין הקטרת פסח דנהי דשחיטתו וזריקתו דוחה שבת איכא למימר דהיינו משום דאי אפשר בענין אחר דלא לידחי לגמרי משא”כ לענין הקטרה דאפשר להקטירו בלילה במוצאי שבת. וכ”ה במשך חכמה. במדבר ט, ב. 

Korban (Offering) - Mikdash Educational Center

C – Meiri. They knew the Halacha. What they forgot was the basis and the source and reason. 

D Reb Yitzchok Elchonon Spector. 

Portrait of Rabbi Yitzchak Elchanan Spector | Kedem Auction House

Being that most Jews lived in Bavel, they were unsure if the minority in EY consisted of a רוב to make the קרבן פסח  a קרבן ציבור to override שבת. 

ספקטור שו”ת באר יצחק, חלק א סימן יד, ב

זה גופא היה הספק של בני בתירא. דהא המה היו בזמן בית שני דלא היו שם שני שבטים…וכיון דהרוב נשארו בבבל יש לדון דאין דינם כקרבן ציבור שדוחה שבת… או אפשר דעם כל זה דינם כמו קרבן ציבור דהא על כל פנים כל ישראל דבארץ ישראל המה בני חיובא, וכמו הא דהוריות (ג ע”א) דאמר רב אסי דבהוראה הלך אחר יושבי ארץ ישראל, כפי’ רש”י שם דאותן הדרים בחו”ל אינם נחשבים מן המנין…ועל זה הספק בא הלל וקפשט להו למילף בגזרה שוה

Interesting answer, but if this was the dilemma, why did it come up only in the times of Hillel? 

As ZS asks: This story occurred 300 years after they came back from Bovel and rebuilt the second Beis Hamikdosh. וצ”ע

E – They tweaked the calendar & עדים so that it never occurred before. So what happened that year? They did it in error! צל”ח. 

F- This whole story was about פסח שני . 

רבי זליג ראובן בנגיס – האנציקלופדיה היהודית

 ר’ ראובן בנגיס 

G- Rebbe –   תשל”ז. שיחות קודש 590 י”א ניסן They were always a segment of people that didn’t bring a קרבן פסח in the event it occurred on Shabbos. [Similar to many ancient different ways to perform some מצוות. – Rashi and R”T tefillin]. That year they wanted to decisively establish the final Halacha. 

What Is Lack of Clarity Costing You? - Julie Hyde Leadership

3The second קרבן פסח occurred on Shabbos! 

במדבר ט, א. א וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל מֹשֶׁה בְמִדְבַּר סִינַי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן לֵאמֹר. ב וְיַעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַפָּסַח בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ. ג בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ כְּכָל חֻקֹּתָיו וּכְכָל מִשְׁפָּטָיו תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ. ד וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשֹׂת הַפָּסַח. ה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת הַפֶּסַח בָּרִאשׁוֹן בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם בְּמִדְבַּר סִינָי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת מֹשֶׁה כֵּן עָשׂוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. 

That year, Rosh Chodesh Nissan was on a Sunday. Thus, the 14th day of Nisan was Shabbos and they were told to bring the קרבן פסח despite it being Shabbos. So what was the doubt?  

A- הוראת שעה. 

Bפענח רזא. We know that it occurred Shabbos only after Hillel presented the גזירה שוה of במועדו. In other words – The Bnei Beseira were unaware that that year Erev Pesach occurred on Shabbos. It was Hillel who revealed that that year Erev Pesach occurred on Shabbos! 

C-  משאת המלך At that time there was no פסח שני! So perhaps, there was no choice but to bring it on שבת  since there would be no תשלומין.    

4- Hillel’s proof

A- Bavli – גזרה שוה וקל וחומר.

Yerushalmi -Hillel tried to use logic. Ultimately they accepted only due to his  קבלה from שמעי’ ואבטליון.  

שמעיה ואבטליון | הפרסום החרדי

Seems the בני בתירה were using logic. Hillel countered with the מסורה. 

This may explain why the בני בתירה are not counted as part of the chain of  receivers and transmitters of the מסורה. Rabbi Ariel.  

5- Question and resolution of carrying the knife 

A- Rebbe: 

Hillel’s answer: נבואה versus logic.

Symbolic Logic: Definition & Examples - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

His approach was that Yiden have an inherent DNA to get things right. He therefore said הַנַּח לָהֶן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, אִם אֵין נְבִיאִים הֵן — בְּנֵי נְבִיאִים הֵן. 

Hillel himself was unable to ‘get’ this נבואה because his attempt to understand and explain what to do blocked this נבואה! 

תו”מ . נא. 230 ואילך. תשכ”ח-  בראשית ב. 

1- בני נביאים. כי לישראל ניתן הכח לכוון לרצה”ע. למעלה מהבנה. 

2- הנח להן דווקא. כי אצל הלל הבנתו היתה סתירה לנבואה! 

B-  Why is there no מעילה?  

Bavli – מקדש in the עזרה. 

Yerushalmi – No מעילה if it’s for the purpose of the קרבן. 

Parenthetically, this explains the following פסוקים 

בראשית ו, כב  וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָהָם אֶת עֲצֵי הָעֹלָה וַיָּשֶׂם עַל יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיִּקַּח בְּיָדוֹ אֶת הָאֵשׁ וְאֶת הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו. ז וַיֹּאמֶר יִצְחָק אֶל אַבְרָהָם אָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר אָבִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּנִּי בְנִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה הָאֵשׁ וְהָעֵצִים וְאַיֵּה הַשֶּׂה לְעֹלָה. ח וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהִים יִרְאֶה לּוֹ הַשֶּׂה לְעֹלָה בְּנִי וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו.

‘Where is the korbon’? 

Why did Yitztchok  only ask his father now? Answer: He wondered if he was a Korbon how could his father place the wood on him to carry…

6- קרבן פסח

לקו”ש – יח, 104. קרבן יחיד וציבור. 


חג של גאולה: פסח כשר ושמח! - אור חיה LIVE

פסחים סו,א.

ְּתָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הֲלָכָה זוֹ נִתְעַלְּמָה מִבְּנֵי בְתִירָא. פַּעַם אַחַת חָל אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שָׁכְחוּ וְלֹא יָדְעוּ אִם פֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אִם לאו.

GEMARA: The Sages taught a baraita with regard to the basic halakha governing the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat: This law was forgotten by the sons of Beteira, who were the leaders of their generation. The fourteenth of Nisan once occurred on Shabbat, and they forgot and did not know whether the Pesach lamb overrides Shabbat or not.

. אָמְרוּ: כְּלוּם יֵשׁ אָדָם שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ אִם פֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אִם לָאו? אָמְרוּ לָהֶם: אָדָם אֶחָד יֵשׁ שֶׁעָלָה מִבָּבֶל וְהִלֵּל הַבַּבְלִי שְׁמוֹ, שֶׁשִּׁימֵּשׁ שְׁנֵי גְּדוֹלֵי הַדּוֹר שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן, וְיוֹדֵעַ אִם פֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אִם לָאו. שָׁלְחוּ וְקָרְאוּ לוֹ,

They said: Is there any person who knows whether the Pesach lamb overrides Shabbat or not? They said to them: There is a certain man in Jerusalem who came up from Babylonia, and Hillel the Babylonian is his name. At one point, he served the two most eminent scholars of the generation, Shemaya and Avtalyon, and he certainly knows whether the Pesach lamb overrides Shabbat or not. The sons of Beteira sent messengers and called for him.

אָמְרוּ לוֹ: כְּלוּם אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ אִם הַפֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אִם לָאו? אָמַר לָהֶם: וְכִי פֶּסַח אֶחָד יֵשׁ לָנוּ בַּשָּׁנָה שֶׁדּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת? וַהֲלֹא הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִמָּאתַיִם פְּסָחִים יֵשׁ לָנוּ בַּשָּׁנָה שֶׁדּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת

They said to him: Do you know whether the Pesach lamb overrides Shabbat or not? He said to them: Have we but one Pesach lamb during the year that overrides Shabbat? Do we not have many more than two hundred Pesach lambs, i.e., sacrifices, during the year that override Shabbat?

אָמְרוּ לוֹ: מִנַּיִן לְךָ? אָמַר לָהֶם: נֶאֱמַר ״מוֹעֲדוֹ״ בַּפֶּסַח, וְנֶאֱמַר ״מוֹעֲדוֹ״ בַּתָּמִיד: מָה ״מוֹעֲדוֹ״ הָאָמוּר בַּתָּמִיד דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, אַף ״מוֹעֲדוֹ״ הָאָמוּר בַּפֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת.

They said to him: From where do you know this? He said to them: “Its appointed time” is stated with regard to the Pesach lamb and “its appointed time” is also stated with regard to the daily offering, for the verse says: “Command the children of Israel and say to them, My offering, the provision of My sacrifice made with fire, for a sweet savor to Me, shall you observe to offer Me at its appointed time” (Numbers 28:2). From here we learn that the daily offering is brought even on Shabbat. Thus, the daily morning and afternoon offerings are brought on more than fifty Shabbatot over the course of the year, and two sheep are offered every Shabbat as additional offerings, for a total of more than two hundred sacrifices a year that override Shabbat. Just as the expression “its appointed time,” which is stated with regard to the daily offering, indicates that it overrides Shabbat, so too “its appointed time,” which is stated with regard to the Pesach lamb, indicates that it overrides Shabbat.

וְעוֹד, קַל וָחוֹמֶר הוּא: וּמָה תָּמִיד שֶׁאֵין עָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, פֶּסַח שֶׁעָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת — אֵינוֹ דִּין שֶׁדּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת.

And furthermore, it is a קל וחומר  inference: If the daily offering, the neglect of which is not punishable by karet, overrides Shabbat, is it not right that the Pesach lamb, the neglect of which is punishable by karet, should override Shabbat?

מִיָּד הוֹשִׁיבוּהוּ בָּרֹאשׁ, וּמִינּוּהוּ נָשִׂיא עֲלֵיהֶם, וְהָיָה דּוֹרֵשׁ כׇּל הַיּוֹם כּוּלּוֹ בְּהִלְכוֹת הַפֶּסַח. הִתְחִיל מְקַנְטְרָן בִּדְבָרִים. אָמַר לָהֶן: מִי גָּרַם לָכֶם שֶׁאֶעְלֶה מִבָּבֶל וְאֶהְיֶה נָשִׂיא עֲלֵיכֶם — עַצְלוּת שֶׁהָיְתָה בָּכֶם, שֶׁלֹּא שִׁמַּשְׁתֶּם שְׁנֵי גְּדוֹלֵי הַדּוֹר, שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן.

After Hillel brought these proofs, they immediately seated him at the head and appointed him Nasi over them, and he expounded the laws of Passover that entire day. In the course of his teaching, he began rebuking them [mekanteran] them with words. He said to them: What caused this to happen to you, that I should come up from Babylonia and become Nasi over you? It was the laziness in you that you did not serve the two most eminent scholars of the generation living in Eretz Yisrael, Shemaya and Avtalyon.

אָמְרוּ לוֹ: רַבִּי, שָׁכַח וְלֹא הֵבִיא סַכִּין מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, מַהוּ? אָמַר לָהֶן: הֲלָכָה זוֹ שָׁמַעְתִּי וְשָׁכַחְתִּי, אֶלָּא הַנַּח לָהֶן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, אִם אֵין נְבִיאִים הֵן — בְּנֵי נְבִיאִים הֵן.

They said to Hillel: Our teacher, if one forgot and did not bring a knife on the eve of Shabbat and cannot slaughter his Pesach lamb, what is the law? Since he could have brought the knife before Shabbat, he cannot bring it on Shabbat; but what should he do in this situation? He said to them: I once heard this halakha from my teachers but I have forgotten it. But leave it to the Jewish people; if they are not prophets to whom God has revealed His secrets, they are the sons of prophets, and will certainly do the right thing on their own.

לְמָחָר, מִי שֶׁפִּסְחוֹ טָלֶה — תּוֹחֲבוֹ בְּצַמְרוֹ, מִי שֶׁפִּסְחוֹ גְּדִי — תּוֹחֲבוֹ בֵּין קַרְנָיו. רָאָה מַעֲשֶׂה וְנִזְכַּר הֲלָכָה, וְאָמַר: כָּךְ מְקוּבְּלַנִי מִפִּי שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן.

The next day, on Shabbat that was the eve of Passover, one whose Pesach offering was a lamb took the knife and stuck it in its wool; and one whose Pesach offering was a goat, which does not have wool, stuck it between its horns. Hillel saw the incident and remembered the halakha that he had once learned and said: This is the tradition I received from the mouths of Shemaya and Avtalyon, meaning that this is in fact the proper course of action.

Shiur Sukkah 18b / Pesach II – 03/10/21

BS”D

Sukkah 18b / Pesach (2)

Adar 25, 5781, March 9, 2021

1- The Gemara introduces a major topic in the Halachos of Sukkah as well as Shabbos and Eiruvin.  

פי תקרה יורד וסותם 

הרב אברהם צבי וייס, הרב אברהם צבי ווייס מסכת עירובין דף צה

This is a הלכה למשה מסיני that when a roof ends and is free standing (not on a wall) we view as if the end of the roof ‘shoots down’ a virtual wall. 

פי תקרה יורד וסותם' – בתקרה שטוחה ובתקרה משופעת| 'קרפֵּף' וחצר הסמוכים זה לזה

2- We discussed the various limitation of this הלכה למשה מסיני as to when it applies. The ראשונים discuss if that it would work in a Sukkah that has with סכך on a frame without any solid walls. At the very least a Sukkah needs 2 solid walls before פי תקרה יורד וסותם can be applied to create the virtual 3rd or fourth wall. 

3- Concerning פי תקרה יורד וסותם;

There is a pivotal פני יהושע that expplains this concept by  asking a simple question: 

The bottom of a Sukkah wall needs to reach within 3 טפחים of the floor for it to be considered a proper wall. The reason the Gemara gives is if  ‘sheep can slip under a wall, they nullify the wall’.

Goats Head Appears Through Hole Concrete Stock Photo (Edit Now) 92127370

Thus, asks the פני יהושע, how can a ‘wall’ that does not exist at all be considered a wall using פי תקרה יורד וסותם ? 

His answer: A physical wall indeed needs to reach the bottom. A virtual wall ‘created’ by a הלכה למשה מסיני does have not such limitations since it does not physically exists to begin with! 

We continued the story of the year that Erev Pesach occurred on Shabbos. See notes of last shiur

4- We mentioned the word ‘cloisters’ קלויישטר״א  to describe the word ׳אכסדרה׳.  Rashi 17, a.  Tos. 18,a .  A Brief History Of The Cloisters, NYC

Cloisters, Fort Tryon Park, NY

The Cloisters: A Hidden Museum in New York - A Taste of Travel

What exactly is a cloister? Most simply, it’s a covered walkway, but they’re often attached to religious structures. These cloisters were excavated from France and rebuilt in NYC between 1934 and 1939 and are now surrounded by rooms filled with art from the time.

1Who were the Benei Beseira? 

Maharsha. Reb Yehuda, Reb Shimon Reb Yehoshua. 

2-  Greatness of the בני בתירא that relinquished their positions. 

Yerushalmi:

שלשה הניחו ב”ד בעוה”ז וירשו להם חיי עוה”ב, ואלו הן יונתן בן שאול ור’ אלעזר בן עזריה וזקני בתירא דשדין גרמא מן נשיותא ומנוני’ נשיא:  

כל מה שיאמר לי אדם לעשות אני עושה, חוץ ממה שעשו זקני בתירה לזקני (הלל), שויתרו על הנשיאות ומינו אותו לנשיא עליהם (ירושלמי כתובות ו:ג).

Rebi once said “Anything I am told I would do, anything except what the בני בתירא did! 

2How could they forget? 

Thoughts clipart forgot, Thoughts forgot Transparent FREE for download on WebStockReview 2021

A– Yerushalmi: 

ת”ר הלכה זו נתעלמה מבני בתירא כו’. ירושלמי אמר ר’ אבין והלא אי אפשר לשני שבועות שלא יחול ארבעה עשר בשבת ולמה נעלמה הלכה מהם כדי ליתן גדולה להילל. שלשה הניחו ב”ד בעוה”ז וירשו להם חיי עוה”ב ואלו הן יונתן בן שאול ור’ אלעזר בן עזריה וזקני בתירא דשדין גרמא מן נשיותא ומנוני’ נשיא:  

B –  Pnei Yehoshua. Meshech Chochma. They forgot if burning it on the Mizbeach was permitted on Shabbos or perhaps it was burned after Shabbos. 

פני יהושע פסחים סו א :  אלא דמה שנתעלמ’ מב”ב היינו לענין הקטרת פסח דנהי דשחיטתו וזריקתו דוחה שבת איכא למימר דהיינו משום דאי אפשר בענין אחר דלא לידחי לגמרי משא”כ לענין הקטרה דאפשר להקטירו בלילה 

במוצאי שבת. וכ”ה במשך חכמה. במדבר ט, ב. 

C – Meiri. They knew the Halachah. What they forgot was the basis, source and reason for the Halachah. 

D- Reb Yitzchok Elchonon Spector.

Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor - Wikipedia

Being that most Jews lived in Bovel, they were unsure if the minority in EY consisted of a רוב to make the קרבן פסח  a קרבן ציבור to override שבת. 

OurCrowd Portfolio Company Featured: Exploring the Latest in EdTech - OurCrowd Events

ספקטור שו”ת באר יצחק, חלק א סימן יד, ב

זה גופא היה הספק של בני בתירא. דהא המה היו בזמן בית שני דלא היו שם שני שבטים…וכיון דהרוב נשארו בבבל יש לדון דאין דינם כקרבן ציבור שדוחה שבת… או אפשר דעם כל זה דינם כמו קרבן ציבור דהא על כל פנים כל ישראל דבארץ ישראל המה בני חיובא, וכמו הא דהוריות (ג ע”א) דאמר רב אסי דבהוראה הלך אחר יושבי ארץ ישראל, כפי’ רש”י שם דאותן הדרים בחו”ל אינם נחשבים מן המנין…ועל זה הספק בא הלל וקפשט להו למילף בגזרה שוה

Shiur Sukkah 18a – Pesach – 03/02/21

BS”D

Shiur Sukkah 18a – Pesach – 03/02/21

1- We continued with the Sugya of לבוד, if this הלכה למשה מסיני applies to gaps in a roof of a house and a Sukkah as well as to gaps in walls. Meaning, do we bridge empty spaces, less than 3 טפחים, horizontally as well as vertically. 

זרע שמשון

2- Discussed the novel explanation of the  ערוך לנר and his connection to the Gemara in בבא בתרא about what is considered ‘an average sized house’. 

3- The Gemare talks about the issue of eating small kosher fish אברומה from a river that has also inhabits non kosher insects/fish.

דג הלש

Bream – אברומה?

The concern is that the non-kosher species occasionally mix or attach to the kosher ones. 

What are those parasites on my trout? - MSU Extension

4- We discussed the Halachah requiring one to ensure when purchasing fish that at least part of the skin (identifying it as skin that has or had scales) still be attached to the fillet.

Pan Seared Salmon - Crispy Skin Salmon takes 10 minutes to make!

Also touched on the topic if the color of the fish sufficient to identify it as kosher. Such as the (non dyed) pink color of salmon. Some claim that no other fish has this color while others dispute it.

Taste the fish rainbow - Furthermore

(Parenthetically, I once saw pink/orange non kosher fish at a fish market in the Caribbean. Perhaps they were dyed). 

Red Fish, Blue Fish: Where The Fish Flesh Rainbow Comes From : The Salt : NPR

4- We spoke about the fish called ‘stincus marinus’ (scincus marinus).  This fish was a topic we came across when we learnt מסכת עבודה זרה. 

 

The issue is the Gemore says that all kosher fish have scales and also have fins. (As opposed to non-kosher fish that have only fins or no fins at all). 

When fishermen found this ‘stincus marinus’ in the Mediterranean with scales but no fins, there was much discussion on this phenomenon which seemed contrary to the Gemore. 

As discussed then, some experts claimed that this fish did indeed have tiny fins. Others simply said that the Gemara’s rule was not that 100% of all kosher fish have scales have fins, but the majority have. See here,  from HaKsav veHakabbalah, written by Rabbi Ya’akov Zvi Mecklenburg :

5- We discussed the controversy in the 1780s regarding two types of fish, Shteril and Tik, – שטירל or טיק – that had scales indeed, but were difficult to peel off the skin. The rule is that scales must be able to be peeled off without ripping the skin under them. 

German Jews ate them as opposed to Jews from Hungary. 

After inspecting the fish and successfully peeling off the scales, the Noda Biyehuda wrote that it is a kosher fish.

“ולכן ידע שדג זה ששלח לכאן טהור הוא בלי ספק כלל”

However, a dispute arose as to the identity of the fish type that was presented to the Noda Biyuhuda. 

Many publications were printed with each side claiming to be correct. See here one publication claiming that the Noda Biyehuda changed his mind. 

מקל נועם - גריסהבר, יצחק

5- The sturgeon fish appears in fact to be the שטירל – Shteril.

Acipenser ruthenus Prague Vltava 1.jpg

The whole story is told here.

6- With less than a month to Pesach, which begins this year on a Sunday, we read the text of the Gemore in פסחים concerning an  ערב פסח that happened to fall on Shabbos and the issue it brought up. 

We will IYH continue on this amazing story in the next few shiurim. 

פסחים סו,א.

ְּתָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הֲלָכָה זוֹ נִתְעַלְּמָה מִבְּנֵי בְתִירָא. פַּעַם אַחַת חָל אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שָׁכְחוּ וְלֹא יָדְעוּ אִם פֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אִם לאו.

GEMARA: The Sages taught a baraita with regard to the basic halakha governing the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat: This law was forgotten by the sons of Beteira, who were the leaders of their generation. The fourteenth of Nisan once occurred on Shabbat, and they forgot and did not know whether the Pesach lamb overrides Shabbat or not.

. אָמְרוּ: כְּלוּם יֵשׁ אָדָם שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ אִם פֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אִם לָאו? אָמְרוּ לָהֶם: אָדָם אֶחָד יֵשׁ שֶׁעָלָה מִבָּבֶל וְהִלֵּל הַבַּבְלִי שְׁמוֹ, שֶׁשִּׁימֵּשׁ שְׁנֵי גְּדוֹלֵי הַדּוֹר שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן, וְיוֹדֵעַ אִם פֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אִם לָאו. שָׁלְחוּ וְקָרְאוּ לוֹ,

They said: Is there any person who knows whether the Pesach lamb overrides Shabbat or not? They said to them: There is a certain man in Jerusalem who came up from Babylonia, and Hillel the Babylonian is his name. At one point, he served the two most eminent scholars of the generation, Shemaya and Avtalyon, and he certainly knows whether the Pesach lamb overrides Shabbat or not. The sons of Beteira sent messengers and called for him.

אָמְרוּ לוֹ: כְּלוּם אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ אִם הַפֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אִם לָאו? אָמַר לָהֶם: וְכִי פֶּסַח אֶחָד יֵשׁ לָנוּ בַּשָּׁנָה שֶׁדּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת? וַהֲלֹא הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִמָּאתַיִם פְּסָחִים יֵשׁ לָנוּ בַּשָּׁנָה שֶׁדּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת

They said to him: Do you know whether the Pesach lamb overrides Shabbat or not? He said to them: Have we but one Pesach lamb during the year that overrides Shabbat? Do we not have many more than two hundred Pesach lambs, i.e., sacrifices, during the year that override Shabbat?

אָמְרוּ לוֹ: מִנַּיִן לְךָ? אָמַר לָהֶם: נֶאֱמַר ״מוֹעֲדוֹ״ בַּפֶּסַח, וְנֶאֱמַר ״מוֹעֲדוֹ״ בַּתָּמִיד: מָה ״מוֹעֲדוֹ״ הָאָמוּר בַּתָּמִיד דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, אַף ״מוֹעֲדוֹ״ הָאָמוּר בַּפֶּסַח דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת.

They said to him: From where do you know this? He said to them: “Its appointed time” is stated with regard to the Pesach lamb and “its appointed time” is also stated with regard to the daily offering, for the verse says: “Command the children of Israel and say to them, My offering, the provision of My sacrifice made with fire, for a sweet savor to Me, shall you observe to offer Me at its appointed time” (Numbers 28:2). From here we learn that the daily offering is brought even on Shabbat. Thus, the daily morning and afternoon offerings are brought on more than fifty Shabbatot over the course of the year, and two sheep are offered every Shabbat as additional offerings, for a total of more than two hundred sacrifices a year that override Shabbat. Just as the expression “its appointed time,” which is stated with regard to the daily offering, indicates that it overrides Shabbat, so too “its appointed time,” which is stated with regard to the Pesach lamb, indicates that it overrides Shabbat.

וְעוֹד, קַל וָחוֹמֶר הוּא: וּמָה תָּמִיד שֶׁאֵין עָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, פֶּסַח שֶׁעָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת — אֵינוֹ דִּין שֶׁדּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת.

And furthermore, it is a קל וחומר  inference: If the daily offering, the neglect of which is not punishable by karet, overrides Shabbat, is it not right that the Pesach lamb, the neglect of which is punishable by karet, should override Shabbat?

מִיָּד הוֹשִׁיבוּהוּ בָּרֹאשׁ, וּמִינּוּהוּ נָשִׂיא עֲלֵיהֶם, וְהָיָה דּוֹרֵשׁ כׇּל הַיּוֹם כּוּלּוֹ בְּהִלְכוֹת הַפֶּסַח. הִתְחִיל מְקַנְטְרָן בִּדְבָרִים. אָמַר לָהֶן: מִי גָּרַם לָכֶם שֶׁאֶעְלֶה מִבָּבֶל וְאֶהְיֶה נָשִׂיא עֲלֵיכֶם — עַצְלוּת שֶׁהָיְתָה בָּכֶם, שֶׁלֹּא שִׁמַּשְׁתֶּם שְׁנֵי גְּדוֹלֵי הַדּוֹר, שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן.

After Hillel brought these proofs, they immediately seated him at the head and appointed him Nasi over them, and he expounded the laws of Passover that entire day. In the course of his teaching, he began rebuking them [mekanteran] them with words. He said to them: What caused this to happen to you, that I should come up from Babylonia and become Nasi over you? It was the laziness in you that you did not serve the two most eminent scholars of the generation living in Eretz Yisrael, Shemaya and Avtalyon.

אָמְרוּ לוֹ: רַבִּי, שָׁכַח וְלֹא הֵבִיא סַכִּין מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, מַהוּ? אָמַר לָהֶן: הֲלָכָה זוֹ שָׁמַעְתִּי וְשָׁכַחְתִּי, אֶלָּא הַנַּח לָהֶן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, אִם אֵין נְבִיאִים הֵן — בְּנֵי נְבִיאִים הֵן.

They said to Hillel: Our teacher, if one forgot and did not bring a knife on the eve of Shabbat and cannot slaughter his Paschal lamb, what is the law? Since he could have brought the knife before Shabbat, he cannot bring it on Shabbat; but what should he do in this situation? He said to them: I once heard this halakha from my teachers but I have forgotten it. But leave it to the Jewish people; if they are not prophets to whom God has revealed His secrets, they are the sons of prophets, and will certainly do the right thing on their own.

לְמָחָר, מִי שֶׁפִּסְחוֹ טָלֶה — תּוֹחֲבוֹ בְּצַמְרוֹ, מִי שֶׁפִּסְחוֹ גְּדִי — תּוֹחֲבוֹ בֵּין קַרְנָיו. רָאָה מַעֲשֶׂה וְנִזְכַּר הֲלָכָה, וְאָמַר: כָּךְ מְקוּבְּלַנִי מִפִּי שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן.

The next day, on Shabbat that was the eve of Passover, one whose Pesach offering was a lamb took the knife and stuck it in its wool; and one whose Pesach offering was a goat, which does not have wool, stuck it between its horns. Hillel saw the incident and remembered the halakha that he had once learned and said: This is the tradition I received from the mouths of Shemaya and Avtalyon, meaning that this is in fact the proper course of action.